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Cover: The Southern Hemisphere spiral galaxy NGC 253, im- 
aged at the Institution's Ir^nee du Pont telescope at Las Cam- 
panas, Chile. The outer spiral regions, their appearance 
dominated by young stars rich in the heavier elements, are dis- 
tinctly blue in color. 

The color image was obtained by taking three black-and-white 
exposures through filters using photographic emulsions sensitive 
to different colors. These are combined in the darkroom in the re- 
verse way through similar filters. The technique can be used to 
facilitate surveys for highly colored objects. The experiments and 
photographic work for this image were done several years ago by 
staff photographer John Bedke at Las Campanas and in the Ob- 
servatories' photographic laboratory at Pasadena. 



Carnegie 
Institution 

OF WASHINGTON 




Year Book 84 



The President's Report 



1984-1985 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 3-16716 

International Standard Book Number 0-87279-659-0 

Composition by Harper Graphics, Inc., Waldorf, Maryland 

Printing by Port City Press, Baltimore, Maryland 

December 1985 



Contents 



President and Trustees v 

President's Commentary 1 

The Year in Review 9 

The Biological Sciences 12 

How Does a Gene Work? Transcription Complexes and Gene Control 13 

Xenopus Ribosomal Genes 14 

The HSV tk Gene 15 

Wheat and Pea Ribosomal Genes 16 

Methylation, Light, and Gene Control 18 

Gene Families: The Orchestration of Control 19 

The mRNA Response 19 

Phycobilisome Gene Organization 21 

Organization of Genes in Roundworm Sperm 23 

Regulation of Chorion Gene Amplification 25 

Chromosome Organization during Development 27 

The Molecular Analysis of Geminiviruses 28 

The Changing Genome 29 

Transposable Elements in Maize 30 

Evolutionary Rearrangements of DNA 31 

Membranes: Interaction, Communication, Regulation 33 

Membrane Lipid Traffic in Animal Cells 33 

The Sodium Pump 36 

Membrane Traffic: Receptors 37 

Regulation of Nutrient Uptake in Algae 38 

Photosynthesis: Structure, Function, and Response to Stress 38 

Pigment Structure in the Thylakoid 39 

Photoinhibition 39 

Heat Stress 40 

Serendipity and RuBisCO 42 

Light and Plant Growth 43 

Phytochrome-Mediated Responses 43 

Blue Light 44 

Ecology: Physiological Responses 44 

Habitat Breadth in a Tropical Rain Forest 45 

Resource Acquisition and Allocation 46 

Oxygen Evolution in the Biosphere 47 

The Human Embryo Collection 48 

The Physical Sciences 49 

Structure, Rotation, and the Question of the Interaction of Galaxies 50 

The Polar-Ring Galaxies 51 

Fine Structure in Ellipticals 52 

Computer Simulations of Galaxy Interactions 55 

Environmental Effects on Spirals? 55 

How Different Are Ellipticals and Spirals After All? 57 

Do Galaxy Mergers Make Ellipticals? 58 

The True Shape of Ellipticals 59 

Galaxy Evolution in Clusters: A New Insight 60 

Galaxies at Very Large Redshifts 61 



Toward a Cosmological Distance Scale 63 

The Heavy-Element Contents of Stars: Further Keys to Galaxy Evolution 65 

A Search for the Earliest Stars 65 

Chemical Evolution in the Small Magellanic Cloud 67 

Evidence from Globular Clusters of Our Galaxy 69 

Rotation vs. Heavy-Element Content 69 

The Process of Star Formation 71 

A Prototypical Young Stellar Object (YSO) 71 

Star Formation in Irregulars : 73 

Advanced Theoretical Studies of Star Formation 73 

Solar-Stellar Physics 74 

Instruments for Discovery 75 

Preparation for the Hubble Space Telescope 77 

The Formation of the Planets 78 

Experiments in Planetary Petrology at the Geophysical Laboratory 79 

Studies at DTM on the Accumulation of the Terrestrial Planets 82 

Where Do Meteorites Come From? 84 

Laboratory Investigations of the Outer Planets 85 

The Restless Earth: Mantle, Plate, and Continent Interactions 86 

Plate Subduction Processes 86 

How Deep Subduction? 88 

New Insights from Older Data 89 

Continent Formation: Geochemical Evidence from Mantle-Derived Rocks 90 

Mantle Enrichment by Subduction 94 

Theoretical Approaches to the Active Mantle 96 

PASSCAL: A Major Venture in Seismology 97 

Experimental Studies on Crust and Upper Mantle Processes 99 

Silicate Liquids: How Structure Relates to Property 99 

The Formation of Minerals and Rocks 102 

Mineral Physics and Its Application to the Inner Earth 106 

A Polyhedral Approach to Mineral Compression 107 

Vibrational Spectra and the Properties of Materials 108 

Laboratory Explorations of the Mantle 109 

Computational Quantum Chemistry 110 

The Approach to the Earth's Core Ill 

Toward Understanding Earthquakes Ill 

v An On-Land Spreading Event? 115 

Biogeochemistry 115 

A Quest for the Molecules of Ancient Life 117 

Professional Activities 119 

The Educational Role 119 

Seminars and Symposia 120 

Leadership Roles 121 

Losses, Gains, Honors 122 

Bibliography of Published Work 127 

Administrative Documents 151 

Staff Lists 153 

Report of the Executive Committee 163 

Abstract of the Eighty-Eighth Meeting of the Board of Trustees 165 

Financial Statements 167 

Articles of Incorporation 183 

By-Laws of the Institution 187 

Index 193 



IV 



President and Trustees 



PRESIDENT 
James D. Ebert 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
William R. Hewlett 
Chairman 

Richard E. Heckert 
Vice-Chairman 

William T. Golden 
Secretary 

Philip H. Abelson 
Lewis M. Branscomb 
William T. Coleman, Jr. 
Edward E. David, Jr. 
John Diebold 
Gerald M. Edelman 
Sandra M. Faber 1 
Robert G. Goelet 
William C. Greenough 2 
Caryl P. Haskins 
George F. Jewett, Jr. 
Antonia Axrson Johnson 
William F. Kieschnick 1 
Gerald D. Laubach 1 
John D. Macomber 
Franklin D. Murphy 3 
Robert M. Pennoyer 
Richard S. Perkins 
Robert C. Seamans, Jr. 
Frank Stanton 4 
Charles H. Townes 
Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr. 
Gunnar Wessman 
Trustees 

Crawford H. Greene wait 
William McChesney Martin, Jr. 
Garrison Norton 
Trustees Emeriti 



Elected May 3, 1985 

2 Vice-Chairman to May 3, 1985 

3 Resigned May 3, 1985 

4 Trustee Emeritus as of May 3, 1985 



v 



Farmer Presidents and Trustees 



PRESIDENTS 
Daniel Coit Gilman, 1902-1904 
Robert Simpson Woodward, 

1904-1920 
John Campbell Merriam, 

1921-1938 
Vannevar Bush, 1939-1955 
Caryl P. Haskins, 1956-1971 
Philip H. Abelson, 

1971-1978 

TRUSTEES 
Alexander Agassiz, 1904-1905 
Lord Ashby of Brandon, 1967-1974 
J. Paul Austin, 1976-1978 
George J. Baldwin, 1925-1927 
Thomas Barbour, 1934-1946 
James F. Bell, 1935-1961 
John S. Billings, 1902-1913 
Robert Woods Bliss, 1936-1962 
Amory H. Bradford, 1959-1972 
Lindsay Bradford, 1940-1958 
Omar N. Bradley, 1948-1969 
Robert S. Brookings, 1910-1929 
Vannevar Bush, 1958-1971 
John L. Cadwalader, 1903-1914 
William W. Campbell, 1929-1938 
John J. Carty, 1916-1932 
Whitefoord R. Cole, 1925-1934 
JohnT. Connor, 1975-1980 
Frederic A. Delano, 1927-1949 
Cleveland H. Dodge, 1903-1923 
William E. Dodge, 1902-1903 
Charles P. Fenner, 1914-1924 
Michael Ference, Jr., 1968-1980 
Homer L. Ferguson, 1927-1952 
Simon Flexner, 1910-1914 
W. Cameron Forbes, 1920-1955 
James Forrestal, 1948-1949 
William N. Frew, 1902-1915 
Lyman J. Gage, 1902-1912 
WalterS. Gifford, 1931-1966 



Carl J. Gilbert, 1962-1983 
Cass Gilbert, 1924-1934 
Frederick H. Gillett, 1924-1935 
Daniel C. Gilman, 1902-1908 
HannaH. Gray, 1974-1978 
Patrick E. Haggerty, 1974-1975 
John Hay, 1902-1905 
Barklie McKee Henry, 1949-1966 
Myron T. Herrick, 1915-1929 
Abram S. Hewitt, 1902-1903 
Henry L. Higginson, 1902-1919 
Ethan A. Hitchcock, 1902-1909 
Henry Hitchcock, 1902 
Herbert Hoover, 1920-1949 
William Wirt Howe, 1903-1909 
Charles L. Hutchinson, 1902-1904 
Walter A. Jessup, 1938-1944 
Frank B. Jewett, 1933-1949 
Samuel P. Langley, 1904-1906 
ErnestO. Lawrence, 1944-1958 
Charles A. Lindbergh, 1934-1939 
William Lindsay, 1902-1909 
Henry Cabot Lodge, 1914-1924 
Alfred L. Loomis, 1934-1973 
Robert A. Lovett, 1948-1971 
Seth Low, 1902-1916 
Wayne MacVeagh, 1902-1907 
Keith S. McHugh, 1950-1974 
Andrew W. Mellon, 1924-1937 
John Campbell Merriam, 

1921-1938 
Margaret Carnegie Miller, 

1955-1967 
Roswell Miller, 1933-1955 
Darius O. Mills, 1902-1909 
S. Weir Mitchell, 1902-1914 
Andrew J. Montague, 1907-1935 
Henry S. Morgan, 1936-1978 
William W. Morrow, 1902-1929 
Seeley G. Mudd, 1940-1968 
Franklin D. Murphy, 1978-1985 
William I. Myers, 1948-1976 



William Church Osborn, 1927-1934 
Walter H. Page, 1971-1979 
James Parmelee, 1917-1931 
Wm. Barclay Parsons, 1907-1932 
Stewart Paton, 1916-1942 
George W. Pepper, 1914-1919 
John J. Pershing, 1930-1943 
HenningW. Prentis, Jr., 

1942-1959 
Henry S. Pritchett, 1906-1936 
Gordon S. Rentschler, 1946-1948 
David Rockefeller, 1952-1956 
ElihuRoot, 1902-1937 
ElihuRoot,Jr., 1937-1967 
Julius Rosenwald, 1929-1931 
William M. Roth, 1968-1979 
William W. Rubey, 1962-1974 
Martin A. Ryerson, 1908-1928 
Henry R. Shepley, 1937-1962 
Theobald Smith, 1914-1934 
John C. Spooner, 1902-1907 
William Benson Storey, 1924-1939 
Richard P. Strong, 1934-1948 
Charles P. Taft, 1936-1975 
William H. Taft, 1906-1915 
William S. Thayer, 1929-1932 
JuanT. Trippe, 1944-1981 
James W. Wadsworth, 1932-1952 
Charles D. Walcott, 1902-1927 
Frederic C. Walcott, 1931-1948 
Henry P. Walcott, 1910-1924 
Lewis H. Weed, 1935-1952 
William H. Welch, 1906-1934 
Andrew D. White, 1902-1916 
Edward D. White, 1902-1903 
Henry White, 1913-1927 
James N. White, 1956-1979 
George W. Wickersham, 1909-1936 
Robert E. Wilson, 1953-1964 
Robert S. Woodward, 1905-1924 
Carroll D. Wright, 1902-1908 



Under the original charter, from the date of organization until April 28, 
1904, the following were ex officio members of the Board of Trustees: the 
President of the United States, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
and the President of the National Academv of Sciences. 



VI 



Administration and Directors 



PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT 

1530 P Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005 

James D. Ebert President 

Margaret L. A. Mac Vicar Vice President 

DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 

115 West University Parkway, Baltimore, Maryland 21210 

Donald D. Brown Director 

DEPARTMENT OF PLANT BIOLOGY 

290 Panama Street, Stanford, California 94,305 

Winslow R. Briggs Director 

GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY 

2801 Upton Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008 

Hatten S. Yoder, Jr. Director 

MOUNT WILSON AND LAS CAMPANAS OBSERVATORIES 

813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, California 91101 

George W. Preston Director 

DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 

52U Broad Branch Road, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20015 

George W. Wetherill Director 

OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION 

1530 P Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005 

John C. Lawrence Controller 

Ray Bowers Publications Officer; Editor 

Susan Y. Vasquez Assistant to the President 

Joseph M. S. Haraburda Accounting Manager 

Patricia Parratt Assistant Editor 

Greg Silsbee Grants and Contracts Administrator 

Cady Canapp Personnel/ Employee Benefits Administrator 



Marshall Hornblower Counsel 

STAFF MEMBER IN SPECIAL SUBJECT AREA 

Roy J. Britten 

DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEMBER IN SPECIAL SUBJECT AREA 

Barbara McClintock 

vii 



Carnegie Institution of Washington adheres in all 
phases of its operations, including employment and educa- 
tional programs, to a policy barring discrimination on the 
basis of race, religion, color, national or ethnic origin, 
sex, or physical handicap. In its educational programs it 
admits qualified students as fellows without regard to 
race, religion, color, national or ethnic origin, sex, or 
physical handicap to all the rights, privileges, programs, 
and activities generally accorded or made available to fel- 
lows at the Institution. It does not discriminate on the 
basis of race, religion, color, national or ethnic origin, 
sex, or physical handicap in administration of its educa- 
tional policies, admissions policies, fellowship programs, 
and other Institution-administered programs. 



President's Commentary 




Portions of two lampbrush chromosomes isolated from the nucleus of a newt 
oocyte (Notophthalmus) by Joseph Gall of the Department of Embryology. The 
loops extending laterally from the main axis are regions of active RNA transcrip- 
tion. The products of lampbrush chromosomes are of interest to Gall because they 
control events during oocyte growth and early stages of embryo development. 
(See p. 27) 



Resolved that, because of the desirability of locating 
the Institution's programs in the Geophysical Laboratory 
and the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism onto a com- 
mon site, the Institution proceed with plans for new or 
remodeled buildings for the departments at a single 
site. . . . 

Resolved that the Institution take the steps neces- 
sary to ensure its participation in a large new telescope, 
intending to commit by 1989 not less than $10 million to- 
ward the construction of a large telescope (8-meter) at 
Las Campanas, provided that engineering studies and site 
surveys, to be undertaken during 1985-1989, demonstrate 
its feasibility, and provided that agreements can be com- 
pleted with the University of Arizona and, if appropriate, 
an additional partner. 

Resolutions of the Board of Trustees 
Carnegie Institution of Washington 
May 3, 1985 

The major resolutions voted by the Institution's trustees in 
May were exhilarating in their implications for our future. To- 
gether, the resolutions reflect the trustees' determination that 
Carnegie Institution must stay at the forefront of discovery in 
the physical sciences. The decision to move toward a major, new 
telescope at Las Campanas signals that the Institution's astrono- 
mers will have the opportunity to remain leaders in investigat- 
ing distant, extremely faint objects — a realm that seems to 
encompass many of tomorrow's most exciting questions. Mean- 
while, the consolidation of the Geophysical Laboratory and De- 
partment of Terrestrial Magnetism brings together our leading 
investigators of several subdisciplines in the earth and planetary 
sciences, looking toward a new dimension of leadership in that 
increasingly exciting field. 

In the months since May, we have been working to reach 
agreements that will determine the new workplace of our earth 
scientists and the partnership arrangements for building and op- 
erating the new telescope. Our discussions with representatives 
of major universities and research centers have been promising, 



4 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

to say the least. The reaction of our alumni and peers to the 
courses we have chosen has been encouraging, and there is no 
shortage of prospective partners eager to share the future with 
us — a testimony to the reputation built by our earth scientists 
and astronomers in past decades. I can only hint at the details 
that are emerging, but my confidence in our basic direction is 
stronger than ever. 

Our Future Leadership in Astronomy. Although the resolu- 
tions of the trustees were assuredly bold ones, it is also clear 
that the decisions are in harmony with the past history of the 
Institution — that they are as much evolutionary as revolution- 
ary. Carnegie Institution's long leadership in observational as- 
tronomy, for example, has rested on its willingness to invest in 
the design, construction, and continuing improvement of major 
telescopes. A future 8-meter reflector at Las Campanas follows 
the tradition of the historic instruments on Mount Wilson and 
the central role of the Institution's astronomers in the develop- 
ment of the 5-meter telescope at Palomar. 

The decision to proceed with a new telescope at Las Cam- 
panas is strongly related to the growing importance of observa- 
tion in space. We are already witnessing a flow of major 
discoveries from the early spaceborne instruments, and the 
Hubble Space Telescope — scheduled for orbiting next fall — 
should become "the new Mount Wilson." We believe that the 
key to leadership in the future era of spaceborne observation 
will be access to major ground telescopes — to conceive and de- 
velop forefront observing programs that will use precious space 
telescope time to its fullest advantage. When completed, the 
great reflector at Las Campanas will allow our astronomers to 
compete effectively for observing time in space, and will give 
them the resources to explore extensively the clues likely to 
emerge from space. Moreover, our leading facilities in the 
Southern Hemisphere should give our scientists excellent oppor- 
tunity to obtain access to the major telescopes of the North 
through exchanges of telescope time. 

A related development was the cessation of observations at 
our historic 100-inch Hooker telescope, in late June 1985. This 
step was in accordance with our earlier decision to seek other 
operators for our facilities on Mount Wilson. The 100-inch con- 
tinues to receive preventative maintenance and is exercised pe- 
riodically to keep it in operating condition. For the time being, 
the stellar-activity observing program at the 60-inch telescope 



PRESIDENT'S COMMENTARY 

and the regular observations at the Mount Wilson solar tele- 
scopes remain active, with contract support from outside 
sources. We continue to seek outside proposals for the continued 
operation of the Mount Wilson facilities, from any organization 
that can provide sound scientific and fiscal management. We be- 
lieve that the resources conserved by curtailing our expendi- 
tures at Mount Wilson will be better employed to acquire 
advanced instrumentation, to upgrade our computers, and to 
work toward the future 8-meter instrument at Las Campanas. 

Our Future Leadership in the Earth and Planetary Sci- 
ences. The forthcoming marriage of the Geophysical Laboratory 
and the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) likewise 
appears a largely evolutionary response to today's opportunities. 
Collaboration between scientists of the two departments will not 
be new. Currently, there is sharing of computer facilities, fre- 
quent interaction in seminars, and occasional collaboration in re- 
search. Recently, knowledge developed at the Geophysical 
Laboratory was used to establish at DTM an 18 measurement 
program, and the techniques for measuring 10 Be developed by 
Louis Brown of DTM and colleagues were used for collaborative 
investigations with Thomas Hoering of the Geophysical Labora- 
tory on the origin of petroleum. Geochemists at both centers 
employ isotope analyses to study regions beneath the Earth's 
surface. The most notable example of past cooperation was the 
interdepartmental effort in developing techniques for geochron- 
ology and isotope geochemistry, begun around 1950 and lasting 
more than two decades. Interestingly, seismology — a major fo- 
cus of effort at DTM today — was linked to the Geophysical Lab- 
oratory in the 1920s and 1930s through the work of director 
Arthur Day, who led a pioneering Carnegie-Caltech-U.S. gov- 
ernment venture in seismology, primarily in California. 

The Geophysical Laboratory brings to the forthcoming con- 
solidation a philosophy of investigating fundamental principles, a 
remarkable record of success in conceiving and developing 
equipment and techniques for forefront experiments, and an in- 
sistence on rigor in obtaining and interpreting quantitative data. 
The Laboratory's director, Hatten Yoder, recently described the 
Laboratory's historic role: 

The Geophysical Laboratory has endured as a leader in earth 
science research because it has focused on well-chosen problems 
bearing on major principles that control geological phenomena. 
The experimental demonstration and verification of those princi- 



6 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

pies have led to a framework for others to use in the resolution of 
current earth science problems. 

The tradition at DTM has been wider ranging. The Depart- 
ment's initial focus on the Earth's magnetism has been stretched 
to include whatever ventures seem to the staff interesting and 
worthwhile, all generally focused toward an overall goal of un- 
derstanding the Earth and Universe. The result has been a flow- 
ering of discovery and a vindication of the Institution's historic 
willingness to change — a tradition most clearly seen at DTM. 

Today, knowledge in the subdisciplines of the earth and pla- 
netary sciences is pyramiding with incredible rapidity, and as 
the pyramids of knowledge grow taller they also grow wider. 
There is scarcely a significant question that does not demand 
synthesis across subdisciplinary boundaries. Seismologists, geo- 
chemists, computer-oriented theoreticians, and laboratory exper- 
imentalists ask many of the same questions. By bringing the 
investigators of DTM and the Geophysical Laboratory into daily 
interaction, and by merging the strengths of the two centers, 
the Institution's opportunities for future leadership in discovery 
must multiply. 

A Time for Introspection. Amid our recent planning for the 
future, our attention returned periodically to our historical 
roots — a byproduct of the several recent observances commemo- 
rating the 150th anniversary of the birth of Andrew Carnegie. It 
proved useful on these occasions to reexamine Mr. Carnegie's 
purposes in founding the Institution, and to review the Institu- 
tion's subsequent evolution over eight decades. Our Institution's 
character remains a reflection of Andrew Carnegie's irrepressi- 
ble intellectual curiosity — a lifelong quality clearly shown by his 
skilled biographer, Joseph Wall. Andrew Carnegie gave his 
trustees full freedom to change the purposes of the Institution, 
but in fact the Institution has evolved largely within the original 
mold. We remain Mr. Carnegie's institution for discovery, com- 
mitted to leadership in investigation and to the discovery and 
support of the exceptional investigator. 

In preparing letters to our alumni and friends several weeks 
ago, I searched my mind how best to convey the present charac- 
ter of our Institution. I recognized the risk in singling out a par- 
ticular example of work in progress, but it seemed clear to me 
that our aspirations can be glimpsed in the research of Donald 
Brown and his collaborators at our Department of Embryology. 



PRESIDENT'S COMMENTARY 

Brown's group asks what it is that causes a segment of DNA — a 
gene — to remain inactive on its chromosome until its coded mes- 
sage is needed for a specific role in the development of a com- 
plex organism. Their insights bring us closer to a molecular 
understanding of what I consider the central issue in biology: 
how the linear information in DNA can generate a specific three- 
dimensional organism during the course of development. 

In the frog Xenopus, there are two families of 5S genes, 
genes required to build the ribosome, the protein-synthesizing 
apparatus of the cell. One class of 5S genes, the oocyte genes, 
are active only during a brief window in time early in embryoge- 
nesis and are then silent for the remainder of the life of the 
organism. This surge of 5S RNA is required early in embryoge- 
nesis to provide the growing egg with a large supply of ribo- 
somes. In a series of elegant biochemical experiments, Brown 
has approached the question "What accounts for the activation 
of oocyte 5S genes in oocytes and the lack of their expression in 
somatic cells?" by reconstituting in vitro faithful developmental 
control of expression of this set of 5S genes. He then made the 
surprising observation that, unlike in bacterial genes, control of 
activity of the 5S genes is mediated through a DNA sequence 
which resides not adjacent to, but within the gene itself. This 
control region is the site of binding of a positive activator which 
"sits" on the DNA. RNA polymerase, which actually synthesizes 
the RNA product of the 5S genes, now binds not to the naked 
gene but to the gene complexed with control proteins. The com- 
plex is stable and the cycle is broken only later in embryogene- 
sis when 5S RNA synthesis ceases and 5S RNA is diluted out of 
the growing embryo. This interaction of polymerase with a 
DNA-protein complex inside the gene, not with pure DNA, pro- 
vides a novel solution to a problem in the control of gene expres- 
sion and provides a conceptual framework for future thinking 
about similar gene control processes in other developing sys- 
tems. 

Many of the young investigators who have completed two- 
or three-year fellowships with Brown in recent years, now con- 
tinue related investigations in their own laboratories elsewhere. 
In this way, Brown's laboratory is fertilizing a vital and growing 
field of inquiry. Meanwhile, formal recognition of the work ex- 
pands: early this month, Brown shared the Louisa Gross Hor- 
witz Prize, awarded annually by the trustees of Columbia 
University in recognition of outstanding basic research in biol- 
ogy or biochemistry. Coming soon after his Rosenstiel Medallion 



8 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

(see page 125), the award establishes Donald Brown within a 
highly select, preeminent group among world-class investiga- 
tors. 

A Futuristic Note. Will the Institution's long-term future 
lead toward still closer ties among our several research centers? 
What is the proper place of astronomy in the Institution? Is the 
role of astronomy in the working out of future syntheses in the 
earth and planetary sciences sufficient to justify maintaining 
centers of astronomy on both coasts? 

There are suggestions that the work at the Departments of 
Embryology and Plant Biology are growing together. In fore- 
front genetics studies at Embryology, for example, it often is in- 
cidental whether the experimental organism happens to be 
"plant" or "animal." Meanwhile, the molecular tools usually asso- 
ciated with research in developmental biology are beginning to 
permeate nearly every basic investigation in the plant sciences. 
The questions that traditionally have guided work at the De- 
partment of Plant Biology — on photosynthesis and on mecha- 
nisms of adaptation — continue to do so, but they are now 
increasingly augmented on the molecular level, with techniques 
largely adapted from the pioneering work of developmental biol- 
ogists studying other organisms. 

In his provocative article, "Managing for Challenging Times: 
A National Research Strategy," Erich Bloch, Director of the 
National Science Foundation, has emphasized the nation's need 
to evolve more-cooperative relationships among scientific institu- 
tions, and to develop more programs that cross traditional disci- 
plinary boundaries. Clearly our own recent decisions have 
anticipated Bloch's call for innovation in overcoming barriers 
that block cooperation without sacrificing the distinctiveness of 
the Institution. We must heed his caveat that new courses such 
as those upon which we are embarking will require changes in 
deeply ingrained attitudes. Unless we permit these changes to 
evolve, we risk destruction of a fragile enterprise. 

James D. Ebert 
December 19, 1985 



The Year in Review 




CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 
OF WASHINGTON 

mion OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



Department of Plant Biology staff. Seated at far left (listed from left to right): Mary Smith, Linda 
Roberts, Laura Green, Dow Woodward. Seated at far right: Malcolm Nobs, David Fork, Neil Polans. 
Front step: Lon Kaufman, John Gamon, Eugenio deHostos, Anne Bang, Peggy Lemaux, Pamela Con- 
ley, Jeanette Brown, Frank Nicholson. Second step: Robert Togaski, John Watson, Jerome Lapointe, 
Jeffrey Seemann, Dennis Greer, Joseph Berry. Third step: Arthur Grossman, Moritoshi lino. Fourth 
step: Karen Hall, Carol Abdelhamid, Timothy Ball, Rudy Warren, Brian Welsh, Pedro Pulido. Fifth 
step: Susan Spiller, Aida Wells, Keith Mott. Standing: Norma Powell, Annette Coleman, Barbara 
Demmig, Einar Ingebretsen, Jake Levitt, Glenn Ford, William Thompson, Olle Bjdrkman, James 
Shinkle, Tobias Baskin, Winslow Briggs. 



The Year in Review 



Ours is a time of vigor in science — an era of achievement made 
possible by recent decades of virtually uninterrupted scientific work 
worldwide. Research opportunities are unprecedented in every sub- 
discipline. The techniques of molecular biology, for example, are 
radically influencing wide areas of research in the biological sci- 
ences, opening the way for insights into questions scarcely envi- 
sioned not long ago. The new methods are showing how genes are 
controlled in higher organisms, how genes work together as fami- 
lies, and how cells synthesize and degrade regulatory products in 
response to their external environments. Molecular tools are bring- 
ing answers to older questions too — how plants adapt physiologi- 
cally to environmental stresses, how their mechanisms of 
photosynthesis work, how evolutionary change proceeds. 

Meanwhile in the earth and planetary sciences, excitement con- 
tinues to grow from the discovery less than twenty years ago of the 
fundamental phenomenon of geotectonics: the creation, migration, 
and destruction of the Earth's great lithospheric plates. With this 
discovery, it became possible to view volcanism, seismicity, moun- 
tain building, continental evolution, and other geological phenomena 
with a global rather than a local perspective. Simultaneously, there 
is new ferment in astronomy — a product of the remarkable gains in 
observing power brought by charge-coupled devices (CCD's) and 
digital filtering techniques. The early frame for understanding and 
studying the galaxies built by Edwin Hubble and his colleagues 
fifty years ago remains useful, but its inevitable modification seems 
to be accelerating amid the remarkable insights of our times. A 
new generation of astronomers is beginning to command attention, 
and its members are exploring the germs of the syntheses that 
must surely lie ahead. 

These developments will be manifest in our review of the Institu- 
tion's scientific work, presented in the pages that follow. The text 
has been assembled from materials prepared by the directors and 
scientists in July 1985, and is intended to give readers who are not 
specialists in the particular scientific disciplines a sense of the Insti- 
tution's current work. Our review, following custom, will focus on 
research in the year just ended. But it is worth pausing to note the 

11 



12 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

obvious — that the current research activities of individual scientists 
are, like the larger developments sketched above, products of 
achievements reaching many years into the past. Rarely if ever is a 
significant piece of research conceived, carried out, and interpreted 
in a single year. 

Thus the significance of a given scientific investigation can be un- 
derstood only in its relation to the universe of preexisting knowl- 
edge, questions, and methods. Indeed, every research venture 
builds on precedent, whether it seeks to test, refine, or extend an 
older frame or whether it points toward a more revolutionary out- 
come. Each discovery of new knowledge, each invention of theory, 
each development in instrumentation is both culmination of past un- 
derstanding and prelude to a new beginning. 

Given the essential continuity of inquiry, then, it would be haz- 
ardous to interpret a single year's work in historical isolation. Here 
and there in the essay that follows, therefore, we present the cur- 
rent research in broader perspective than might be expected. Al- 
though what emerges remains a relatively narrow view of selected 
work at a single research institution, we hope that the reader will 
recognize a series of snapshots which taken together demonstrate 
the continuity of the scientific endeavor. We shall glimpse compet- 
ing interpretations at play, members of different specialties ap- 
proaching common problems from opposite directions, the 
emergence of new theories and the refinement of earlier ones. De- 
tectable will be that testing of ideas, that drive to obtain new and 
better data, that urge to work toward new syntheses, all of which 
mark the scientist as professional. 

In short, we will witness the process of science — a never-ending 
flow driven by the scientist's curiosity, rigorous questioning of 
data, and originality in conceiving pathways to plausible answers. 



The Biological Sciences 



Science . . . proceeds by detailed experimentation 
on limited areas of nature. It looks for partial and 
provisional answers for certain phenomena that can 
be isolated and well defined. 

Frangois Jacob 

The Possible and the Actual 

1982 

Carnegie biologists over the years have developed numerous 
techniques of in situ experimentation. They have reconstructed the 
working environments of genes of higher organisms. They 
have developed means for following molecules directly inside living 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 13 

cells. They have found ways to probe deeply into the inner 
workings of the photosynthetic machinery. 

In this work they use experimental systems that range from a 
set of genes in the fruit fly, to the chromosomes of protozoa, to a 
genus of tropical pepper plants. Each one of these experimental 
systems carries with it the implicit assumption that what is learned 
will apply to wider areas in biology, perhaps even to agricultural or 
medical problems such as increased plant productivity or the cure 
of birth defects. 

At Carnegie, though, the emphasis is — and always has been — on 
understanding the basic processes of life. As such, Institution scien- 
tists have traditionally shown little inhibition in crossing discipli- 
nary or departmental boundaries. During the 1950s, for example, 
Philip Abelson initiated pioneering biogeochemical experiments at 
the Geophysical Laboratory — work continuing to the present day 
and this year expanding to include collaborative research 
with biologists at the Department of Plant Biology. At the Depart- 
ment of Terrestrial Magnetism, in an effort organized in 1947, an- 
other group of scientists began applying principles of physics to bi- 
ology, often using radioactive materials as tracers in biological ex- 
periments. Pioneering work by Roy Britten and colleagues 
brought new techniques for DNA hybridization. Though the work 
was later discontinued at DTM, it is today reflected in studies of 
gene and cell function at the Departments of Embryology and Plant 
Biology, and at the Kerckhoff Marine Laboratory, where 
Britten is now a Carnegie staff member. 



How Does a Gene Work? Transcriptional Complexes and Gene 
Control 

In my view, developmental control of genes is 
going to boil down to some very mundane 
biophysical principles. 

Donald Brown 

Science 226 (1985), p. 1408 

Only forty years ago, geneticists could not tell from which part of 
the chromosome — the proteins or nucleic acids — the genes 
were made. Most attention focused on the more complex proteins. 
But when it was discovered that the genetic instructions 
were encoded in the nucleotides of DNA, all attention shifted to 
the nucleic acids. Today, attention is returning, full circle, 
to the proteins. For it is becoming increasingly clear that proteins 
in the chromosomes of higher organisms play key roles in 
the regulation of genes; many genes seem to be turned on by the 
formation of highly specific and very stable protein-DNA complex- 
es. At the Department of Embryology, director Donald Brown and 
staff member Steven McKnight study how these transcriptional 



14 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

complexes may work in genes of higher organisms. Meanwhile, at 
the Department of Plant Biology, William Thompson examines the 
possibility that similar transcriptional complexes regulate the 
expression of plant genes. 

Xenopus Ribosomal Genes. Donald Brown has spent over twenty 
years in pursuit of the control mechanisms that turn genes 
on and off during development. As a model system in this effort, 
he uses closely related 5S ribosomal RNA genes of the frog- 
like Xenopus. With his colleagues he has developed powerful tech- 
niques for probing these genes. One of the most notable 
was a method to study single working 5S RNA genes in an extract 
of Xenopus oocyte nuclei that simulates the gene's natural 
environment. (Oocytes are maturing egg cells.) Using this tech- 
nique, Brown discovered five years ago that the control region for 
the gene (the region that is necessary for function) lay in 
the middle of the gene, within its coding sequence, and not on one 
of its ends, where control regions of bacterial genes lie. This year, 
still on the trail of Xenopus gene control, Brown and his current 
colleagues propose a mechanism for 5S RNA gene expression that 
they suggest may account for other examples of gene control 
among closely related genes. 

5S ribosomal RNA genes encode the smallest of the three major 
RNAs needed to make ribosomes, the organelles in a cell 
where protein molecules are assembled. (Genes make proteins by 
first making templates of themselves, messenger RNAs, in a copy- 
ing process called transcription. The mRNA of each gene exits the 
nucleus and travels to the ribosomes, where it is "translated" into 
protein precursors — the amino acids.) 

The thousands of 5S ribosomal genes present in each Xenopus 
cell exist in two categories. One category contains about 98% of the 
total and is transcribed into 5S RNA only in oocytes. These 
genes are called oocyte 5S RNA genes. The genes in the second 
category, the remaining 2%, are called somatic 5S RNA genes. 
These genes, which differ slightly in structure from the oocyte 5S 
RNA genes, are transcribed in all cells, both egg and somatic. 
From a developmental perspective, it makes sense that more 5S 
RNA genes are transcribed in oocytes, for the egg's rapid growth 
to maturity requires the formation of enormous amounts of 
ribosomes. These ribosomes are stored for use by the developing 
embryo. Thus, the oocyte needs many more copies of the 
5S RNA gene than does a somatic cell. But what, Brown wondered, 
are the mechanisms that turn off oocyte genes in somatic 
cells and turn them on in oocytes? 

The DNA of higher organisms, unlike that in bacteria, is bound 
with protein. For some years it has been thought that interactions 
of proteins with genes plays a major role in gene regulation, but 
very little has been understood exactly how. Within the last two 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 15 

years, Brown and his colleagues have illuminated this picture con- 
siderably. They have found, in 5S RNA genes, that a particular 
protein factor, TFIIIA, appears to be required for gene activity. 
TFIIIA functions by binding to the center of the gene (the gene's 
control region), nucleating the formation of a "transcription 
complex." Also bound stably to the complex are at least two other 
factors, none of which have yet been characterized. The complex 
thus formed — gene, TFIIIA, and the unidentified proteins — is so 
stable that many rounds of RNA can be made from it. Brown be- 
lieves that the stability results from the cooperative nature of the 
binding: the proteins are bound not only to the gene but 
also to each other. 

Knowing that an active gene is bound into a transcriptional 
complex, the developmental question, Brown writes, can be re- 
phrased: Why are both oocyte and somatic 5S RNA genes found in 
active transcription complexes in oocytes while only somatic 5S 
RNA genes are in such complexes in somatic cells? The properties 
of TFIIIA itself suggests an answer. Brown and his colleagues 
have found that TFIIIA binds more tightly to somatic 5S RNA 
genes than it does to oocyte 5S RNA genes. Furthermore, they 
have found that much more TFIIIA is present in oocytes, where all 
5S RNA genes are active, than in somatic cells, where the 
oocyte 5S RNA genes are repressed. 

During the report year, Brown's group confirmed the importance 
of these properties in regulating expression of the gene. A slight 
difference in binding affinity, they found, is amplified into a large 
difference when the TFIIIA concentration is low. In their 
experiments, they injected cloned oocyte and somatic 5S RNA 
genes into cleaving embryos. The somatic 5S RNA genes were 
transcribed as much as 200 times more efficiently than were oocyte 
5S RNA genes. This difference was promoted solely by the 
binding of TFIIIA. In additional experiments, they found that by 
injecting purified TFIIIA into embryos, they were able to increase 
the expression of the oocyte 5S RNA in somatic cells. This 
is the first instance, Brown writes, where a purified protein factor 
has been shown to activate a gene in a living cell. 

Brown's work provides one of the most detailed examples to date 
of how a gene functions in a living, working cell of a higher 
organism. It may be that his results are of general significance; 
scientists may find that most genes in higher organisms are 
regulated by variations in binding affinity for specific transcription 
factors. 

The HSV tk Gene. Embryology staff member Steven McKnight, 
like Brown, studies the transcription machinery of living cells, but 
he does so indirectly; he examines viruses. Viruses contain 
DNA but they lack most metabolic machinery; they can thus repro- 
duce only when present inside a host cell. Once a virus has 



16 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

infected a cell, it exploits the cell's transcriptional machinery by 
directing it to express viral genes and, in turn, make more 
copies of virus. 

Certain viruses, like the mammal-infecting viruses that McKnight 
studies, further use regulatory products encoded by their 
own chromosomes. McKnight is interested in how the products of 
these viral regulatory genes selectively influence gene expression. 
From the results, he hopes to gain insight into the normal 
mechanisms of transcriptional control in mammalian cells. 

He is particularly familiar with the regulation of a gene encoded 
by herpes simplex virus — the thymidine kinase, or tk, gene. He 
first isolated and characterized the tk gene several years ago at the 
Department of Embryology. (McKnight was a postdoctoral 
fellow and staff associate at the Department from 1977 until 1981.) 
He found the tk gene to be small, only 1308 nucleotides long, and 
particularly amenable to molecular dissection. Following a 
technique developed by Brown for the Xenopus 5S RNA gene 
(Year Book 78 ', p. 75), he then determined that a small region be- 
ginning about 105 base pairs upstream from the transcription start 
point was required for the gene's proper expression. 

In 1984, after spending three years at the Hutchinson Cancer 
Research Center in Seattle, McKnight returned to the Department 
as a staff member. There, with postdoctoral fellows Barbara 
Graves and Peter Johnson, he continues to study aspects of tk gene 
control. Last year, the group succeeded in identifying four 
subdomains within the gene's control region. Each one, they found, 
was characterized by a specific arrangement of nucleotides. 

McKnight thought that the small subdomains might serve as 
binding sites for specific transcription factors, and that the binding 
would facilitate expression of the gene — much as Brown found to 
be the case with the 5S RNA gene. To explore this idea, 
he and his colleagues isolated several proteins from mammalian nu- 
clei and tested them for binding affinity to the four tk control 
domains. So far, they have tentatively identified transcription fac- 
tors that bind with, or "footprint," three of the four subdomains. 

The results raise a host of questions for McKnight and his co- 
workers. Do the transcription factors that bind to the tk control re- 
gions also operate on the genes of the host cell? What do the 
factors do when bound to a transcriptional control region — do they 
stay stably attached to the DNA during transcription or do they 
cycle on and off with each round of activity? 

Wheat and Pea Ribosomal Genes. While McKnight pursues these 
questions in Baltimore, William Thompson and his colleagues at the 
Department of Plant Biology in Stanford, California, investigate re- 
lated questions in plants. Their goal is to reconstruct the 
chain of events leading to the activation of previously inactive plant 
genes. 



-100 -82 

HEXANUCLEOTIDE DYAO 



-50 


TATA 




HEXANUCLEOTIDE 


HOMOLOGY 


mRNA 
START POINT 



— CCGCCC ATTGGCGAAT GGGCGG AT ATT A A n N. 

— GGCGGG TAACCGCTTA CCCGCC TAT A ATT U / 



H 



B C B 



Map of the control region for the herpes simplex virus, thymidine kinase (tk) 
gene, as determined by Steven McKnight and his colleagues at the Department of 
Embryology. This region of DNA, located within 105 nucleotides upstream from 
the transcription start point, contains four distinct subdomains, of which two — 
designated B — share a common structure. Subdomain A has an AT-rich "TATA 
homology." Common to many eukaryotic-coding genes, TATA homology appears 
to be critical for establishing the precise location of the mRNA start point. The 
subdomains B are GC-rich hexanucleotides, one on either side of subdomain C, 
which exhibits a dyad symmetrical structure. McKnight has found that the integ- 
rity of each of the four subdomains, which serve as binding sites for specific tran- 
scription protein factors, is required for expression of the tk gene. Both 
subdomains B bind the same protein. 



It was only five years ago that Thompson, in collaboration with 
Carnegie research associate Michael Murray and Steven Spiker 
(then at Oregon State University), showed — for the first time — 
that active plant genes (those making mRNA) exist in a 
DNA-protein conformation unlike the DNA-protein conformation of 
inactive genes. This difference was revealed by an increased 
sensitivity of the DNA-protein conformation in the active genes to 
DNase I, an enzyme that degrades DNA where it is not 
protected by chromosomal proteins. 

During the past year, Thompson and his colleagues, using as a 
model system the ribosomal genes of pea and wheat, found that an 
active ribosomal gene is more sensitive to DNase I in some regions 
than it is in others. The initial observation came out of Thompson's 
work with wheat plants, which he did in collaboration with 
Richard Flavell of the Plant Breeding Institute in Cambridge, En- 
gland. Similar observations were soon made for the ribosomal RNA 
genes of pea plants by Lon Kaufman and John Watson in 
Thompson's group. (Kaufman is a research associate, Watson a 
postdoctoral fellow at the Department.) 

Specific, localized sites of sensitivity to DNase I — "DNase 
hypersensitive sites" — had never before been reported in plant 
genes, though for many years they have been known to exist in an- 
imals. In animal genes, they appear to be correlated with 
gene activity, or potential for activity, and probably reflect localized 
alterations in DNA-protein conformation associated with, for 
example, the binding of specific proteins required for transcription. 

In both pea and wheat, Thompson et al. have found that DNase 
hypersensitive sites exist not only in the ribosomal genes 
themselves but also in certain subrepeat DNA sequences present 
in several copies within regions of non-protein-coding ("spacer") 
DNA nearby. Furthermore, they have found — in what Thompson 
calls perhaps the most exciting observation to date — that 



18 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

the distribution of DNase hypersensitivity sites, at least in pea 
plants, changes during development of the plant. Flavell and 
Thompson have proposed a model for ribosomal gene regulation in 
which certain sequences in the spacer region function as "enhan- 
cers." As such, these enhancers may attract various protein factors 
necessary for active transcription of the nearby gene; the 
binding of these factors to the chromosome may cause the distribu- 
tion changes in DNase I hypersensitivity. 

Methylation, Light, and Gene Control. In seeking further insight 
into the question of how plant genes turn on and off during 
development, Thompson has studied for several years a DNA modi- 
fication process called methylation. A prominent feature of 
plant DNAs, methylation is the chemical attachment of methyl 
groups to cytosine (a nucleotide of DNA) in certain regions of a 
gene. In both animals and plants, methylation occurs more often in 
functionally inactive, or turned off, genes than it does in 
genes that are active. 

Last year, Thompson and his colleagues found evidence that, in a 
single plant, levels of methylation differ in bud, leaf, and 
root cells. This year, in experiments designed to study the influence 
of light on methylation, Thompson, Watson, and Kaufman 
extracted the ribosomal DNA from different cells of seven-day-old 
peas grown either in darkness or in darkness with various 
exposures to white light. They located the methylation sites with 
the use of restriction enzymes known to be sensitive to methylated 
DNA. In all, they mapped 23 methylation sites in 90% of the 
ribosomal DNA. The results indicated that the DNA from buds was 
more heavily methylated than that from roots or leaves of 
the same plants and, further, that methylation decreased gradually 
during light-regulated leaf development. In plants that were 
exposed to three days of white light and then returned to darkness, 
the methylation level was similar to that of plants receiving 
seven days of light. Thompson concluded that once the change in 
methylation level had progressed for three days, the presence of 
light was no longer required for full manifestation of the response. 

Ribosomal genes are present in two regions, or loci, in 
pea DNA. In one locus they are short, in the other they are long. 
Thompson and colleagues have found several differences between 
the long and short genes. For one, methylation seems to 
occur primarily in the short genes, and primarily at those sites 
thought to be responsible for transcriptional regulation. Also, short 
genes evidence many more changes in the distribution of 
hypersensitivity sites. (Long genes contain hypersensitive sites, but 
they do not appear to undergo changes during development.) Of 
even more interest, changes in the distribution of DNase 
hypersensitivity were found to occur at many of the same sites in 
the short genes where methylation was also found to occur. Just 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 19 

upstream from the start site of transcription of a short ribosomal 
gene, for example, they located an area where hypersensitivity ap- 
peared and methylation decreased during light-induced leaf 
development. 

On the basis of these observations, Thompson et al. propose that 
only one of the two loci — the one containing the longer ribosomal 
genes — is active in dark-grown cells. As development proceeds and 
the plants are exposed to light, the locus containing the shorter 
genes becomes active as well. 

Gene Families: The Orchestration of Control 

Over the last several years we have been laying 
the groundwork for what we hope will become a 
system for studying the coordinated response of 
many genes during light-induced development. . . - 

William F. Thompson 

Department of Plant Biology 

July 1985 

Genes function as parts of systems of genes whose orchestration 
requires complex coordination. For a complete picture of how de- 
velopment proceeds in an organism, it is necessary to understand 
how this coordination works at the molecular level. Do mechanisms 
of control, for example, depend on certain arrangements of 
genes along the chromosomes? Do related genes have to be located 
in the same region of the genome — or can they be in different 
places? Questions like these, more and more, occupy the time and 
thoughts of developmental biologists at the Departments of 
Embryology and Plant Biology. 

The mRNA Response. Thompson's experiments on the develop- 
mental regulation of individual ribosomal genes, described 
above, are yielding valuable insights into gene control in plants. But 
they were also designed, Thompson writes, as test runs for 
experiments on genes involved in the coordinated responses of 
many genes during light-induced development. In this larger study, 
which has recently included collaborative work with Winslow 
Briggs, Thompson et al. focus on many different genes rather than 
on one or two. While studying one or two genes would be 
much simpler than studying ten or more, Thompson notes, it would 
have prevented them from seeing the diversity of molecular 
responses they felt were probably involved in complex developmen- 
tal changes. 

The work began several years ago with the isolation of cDNA 
clones from thirteen different messenger RNAs in pea whose con- 
centration changes during growth in the light. The precise 
conditions required to induce these changes and the details of the 
responses have been, since then, a major focus of Thompson's lab. 



20 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



This year, the group classified the mRNA responses into 
several broad categories, mainly according to the time course with 
which they occur. Thompson notes, however, that there is 
still much variation within each category. (See table, below.) 



COPY TIME FLUENCE PLUS CONT 

GROUP CLONE NUMBER COURSE RESP WHITE RECIP WHITE BLUE AUXIN RED 



IA pAB96 6-12 

pSS15 6-12 
pEA25 1-2 
IB P EA238 
pEA303 



IC 



pEA214 
pEA277 1 




VLF.LF 



LF 



LF 



LF 



LF 



INC 



INC 



INC 



IIA pEA46 1 

IIB pEA315 



LF 


— 


Y 


INC 


Y 


Y 


N 


LF 


LF 


Y 


INC 


Y 


Y 


Y 


VLF 


LF 


Y 


DEC 


N 


? 


? 


LF 


VLF.LF 


Y 


DEC 


Y 


Y 


Y 



IIIA pEA170 

II! B pEA215 1 



IV 


pEA13 


1 


- 


- 


N 


INC 


N 


? 


? 










pEA207 


3-6 




- 


Y 


DEC 


N 


N 




V 


- 


N 









As part of a study examining the developmental expression of related plant 
genes, William Thompson and his colleagues at the Department of Plant Biology 
have isolated cDNA clones corresponding to thirteen messenger RNAs in the pea 
plant. Above, these thirteen cDNA clones are grouped according to their re- 
sponses to light. Column marked FLUENCE RESP indicates light response of 
clones exposed to a single pulse of red light. Column marked PLUS WHITE indi- 
cates response of clones exposed to a single red pulse and an additional 24 hours 
of white light. Column marked RECIP indicates whether responses showed reci- 
procity between fluence rate and duration of irradiation. Under column marked 
WHITE, increases or decreases in abundance after treatment with white light 
alone are noted. Under column marked BLUE, responses to blue light after con- 
tinuous red irradiation are noted. Column marked AUXIN shows responses to 
auxin treatment, and column marked CONT RED shows whether or not mRNA 
transcript levels were higher to auxin treatment following continuous red light 
treatment than they were to a single pulse of red light. 

Although showing great diversity of mRNA response to light, even within a 
single category, the table provides a base upon which Thompson and his col- 
leagues can examine responses to light at the molecular level. 

Abbreviations: LF = low fluence response; VLF = very low fluence response; 
— = no response; INC = increase; DEC = decrease; Y = yes; N = no; ? = 
inconclusive evidence. 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 21 

Thompson's group also began an effort this year to obtain clones 
from the genes encoding the thirteen mRNAs. Unlike the 
cloned DNA copies of the mRNAs, the clones of the actual genes 
contain surrounding DNA sequences. Such surrounding sequences 
in working chromosomes are known in many instances to 
be critically involved in regulating gene activity. 

So far, Thompson and Watson have obtained several clones of 
two sets, or families, of genes whose mRNA they have studied. 
One family, called cab, contains about six genes that code for chlo- 
rophyll-binding proteins critical to the proper functioning of 
photosynthesis. The genes in the other family, rbcS, code for the 
small subunit of an important plant enzyme (RuBisCO; see p. 42) 
involved in photosynthesis. 

It appears that within the general category of a single family, 
individual genes may be regulated differently. Kaufman and 
Thompson (in collaboration with N.-H. Chua of Rockefeller Univer- 
sity) found, for example, that different rbcS genes do not respond 
identically during the first 24 hours following a single red light 
treatment. It is an intriguing possibility, Thompson notes, that sim- 
ilar differences in the response of individual genes in a gene 
family might account for the two-component red light fluence re- 
sponse curve they found for cab RNA last year (Year Book 83, p. 
17). They have begun an effort to analyze genomic clones 
of different cab genes (in collaboration with Bruce Roe of the Uni- 
versity of Oklahoma), but in their current assays they cannot yet 
distinguish the RNA products of different genes. 

In a related study, with Norman Weeden of Cornell University, 
Thompson and postdoctoral fellow Neil Polans have found 
that the rbcS and cab gene family members exist in clusters, and 
that each cluster is located on a different chromosome; the cab 
genes are located on chromosome 2, the rbcS genes sit on chromo- 
some 5. Since both gene families code for proteins intimately associ- 
ated with photosynthesis, they must be expressed with some 
degree of coordination during development of the photosynthetic 
apparatus. In whatever way that coordination is achieved, notes 
Thompson, it must not depend on the close physical proximity of 
the genes on a chromosome. 

Phycobilisome Gene Organization. Physical separation is the 
case, also, for some genes in red algae that code for different com- 
ponents of the phycobilisome system. Phycobilisomes are unique 
light-harvesting complexes found in red algae and cyanobacteria. 
They are composed of stacks of pigment proteins (phycobiliproteins) 
linked together by colorless proteins (linkers) in an orderly array. 

Arthur Grossman, a Plant Biology staff member who studies 
phycobilisome genes, has found that, in red algae, the genes that 
code for the phycobiliproteins are located in the chloroplast, while 
the genes encoding the linkers are located in the nucleus. 



22 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



(The chloroplast is a small DNA-containing body within the cell.) 
This arrangement may reflect the evolutionary transfer of genes 
from the chloroplast to the nucleus, a possibility that reflects, in 
turn, a still unproved hypothesis that the chloroplast is itself an ev- 
olutionary descendent of once-independent cyanobacterium. 
Incorporated into unicellular protozoa, the engulfed cyanobacteria 
may have gradually lost their genetic potential to their host nuclei. 
In both red algae and cyanobacteria, the phycobiliproteins make 
up some 85% of the phycobilisome complex, and occur in 
three major varieties — phycocyanin (PC), phycoerythrin (PE), and 
allophycocyanin (APC). Each one of these components contains an 
a and a p polypeptide subunit. Last year, Grossman and one of his 
colleagues, research associate Peggy Lemaux, isolated the 
gene encoding the p subunit of PC (ppcB) from the chloroplast of 
the algae Cyanophora paradoxa. This year, Grossman and 
Lemaux isolated the a subunit of the PC gene (ppcA), as well as 
both a and p genes of APC. (They could isolate APC subunits so 
quickly because homology exists between all phycobiliprotein sub- 
units at the amino acid level; thus it was possible to use the 
isolated PC subunit genes as probes.) They found that the ppcA 
gene was situated right next to the ppcB gene. The APC genes, 
however, were in a different region of the chloroplast genome en- 
tirely. 




ppcB ppcA 



Map showing the location and direction of tran- 
scription of phycobiliprotein genes in the chloro- 
plast DNA of the alga Cyanophora paradoxa. As 
detected by Arthur Grossman and his colleagues 
at the Department of Plant Biology, the a and p 
genes for phycocyanin (ppcA and ppcB) are lo- 
cated in one part of the genome (with the ppcB 
portion being transcribed first — see arrow), 
while the a and units of allophycocyanin (papA 
and papB) are located in another region. Other 
marks along circle indicate restriction enzyme 
cuts in the DNA. Widened areas along bottom of 
map represent inverted repeat regions which en- 
code the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs. 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 23 

In an effort to analyze the transcription of the PC and APC 
genes in C. paradoxa y Grossman and Lemaux this year sequenced 
parts of the coding and regulatory regions. They found that both 
subunits of PC are translated from a single mRNA molecule, and 
that the two subunits of APC are translated from another mRNA. 
This mode of transcription, Grossman notes, may ensure that the 
polypeptide subunits of each phycobiliprotein are synthesized in 
equal amounts. 

Grossman, Lemaux, and postdoctoral fellows Pamela Conley and 
Terri Lomax, in collaboration with J. Schilling, a research 
scientist at Calbiotech in Mountain View, California, have also done 
studies on the arrangement, structure, and function of phycobili- 
some genes in cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are much more primi- 
tive than red algae; they do not contain chloroplasts, and 
their genomic DNA is not surrounded by a membrane. Yet the 
phycobilisome system in these organisms exhibits an interesting 
variation: it can modulate its constituent polypeptides in response 
to the color of the light it receives. This "chromatic adaptation" re- 
action enables cyanobacteria to use effectively whatever wave- 
length of light is prevalent in their environment. 

Cyanobacteria can be organized into three main categories, 
depending on responses of their phycobilisomes to light. Group I 
organisms synthesize constant levels of PE and PC, regardless of 
light color. In group II organisms, PE is regulated by light quality 
(with elevated levels in green light and reduced levels in red 
light), but PC is not. Group III organisms exhibit the most dramat- 
ic response. They show high levels of PC and low levels of 
PE in response to red light, but just the reverse in green light. 

Because the phycobiliprotein genes in cyanobacteria are similar 
to those in red algae, Grossman and his colleagues were 
able to use C. paradoxa PC phycobiliprotein genes as probes in 
finding PC genes in the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon. 
They determined that both APC and PC phycobiliprotein genes in 
F. diplosiphon (a member of group III) are clustered in one region 
of the genome, and that transcripts (mRNAs) from all of 
these genes are present in large numbers in the cell. However, a 
transcript from one PC gene set is only present in cells that were 
grown in red light. In green-light-grown cultures, PC transcripts 
from this set of genes are absent. 

In detailed examination of this light-regulated PC gene set, 
Grossman and colleagues found that the a and p PC genes are 
linked and are transcribed simultaneously as two mRNAs, one 1600 
nucleotides, the other 3800 nucleotides in length. The short 
transcript encodes a and p PC subunits, while the long transcript 
encodes a and p PC plus a light-regulated linker polypeptide. 

Organization of Genes in Roundworm Sperm. As Grossman 
pursues questions about the organization of genes and gene prod- 



24 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

ucts in algae, Samuel Ward, at Embryology, studies similar ques- 
tions about genes and proteins in the roundworm. Ward is 
particularly concerned with how cells differentiate during the com- 
plex pathways of development. 

During development, individual cells must commit themselves to 
a particular function. They must produce specialized protein 
products designed for specialized uses. Further, they must arrange 
these proteins properly: phycobiliproteins must be arranged into 
stacks; muscle proteins must be arranged into parallel filaments; 
nerve proteins must be arranged into long, thin axons. Where in a 
cell, Ward wonders, are the instructions that specify protein 
arrangements? In viruses, most instructions for assembly are con- 
tained in the shapes of the proteins themselves; the molecules come 
together chemically much as atoms do to form crystals. Is 
this also true for cells? If so, what reads the instructions? 

In addressing these broad and difficult questions, Ward focuses 
on a single simple cell — the sperm cell of the roundworm 
Caenorhabditis elegans. Since 1978, Ward and his colleagues have 
isolated and cloned more than fifteen different genes whose 
mutations affect sperm development. Some of these mutations dis- 
rupt the sperm's amoeboid movement. (Roundworm sperm 
do not have long tails but crawl like amoebas.) Other mutations 
alter the shape of the cell. Still others disrupt the sperm cell's 
normally asymmetric surface. 

This year, Ward and members of his laboratory focused their 
efforts on the organization of the large family of genes that encode 
the most abundant proteins in the roundworm sperm. The 
family is large presumably because it enables the worm to make a 
large amount of proteins quickly during the short interval of sperm 
development. Ward and colleagues find that subsets of this 
family with similar sequences are grouped together in small clusters 
along several chromosomes. The clustering of the genes may have 
functional significance, Ward notes, perhaps related to their 
coordinate regulation, but it also may reflect the way the multiple 
genes arose by duplication during evolution. 

Meanwhile, in related work, he and his colleagues have found 
that sperm of another species of roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides 
(a major human and animal parasite) contains a major protein simi- 
lar to that in Caenorhabditis. Postdoctoral fellow Karen Bennett 
used one of the Caenorhabditis genes to find the genes in Ascaris 
that encode this protein. Surprisingly, she finds that Ascaris con- 
tains only a single copy of the gene. 

Ascaris has an interesting history. In the nineteenth century, 
scientists observed that chromosomal material was lost from early 
cells of Ascaris that would eventually become body cells. 
No chromatin was lost, however, from cells that would become 
sperm and egg. The zoologist Theodore Boveri proposed that the 
chromatin lost from body cells (in modern terms, the genes) would 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 



25 




Staff member Samuel Ward, graduate student 
Diane Shakes, and postdoctoral fellow Steven 
L'Hernault at the Department of Embryology. 

contain substances needed only by sperm and eggs. Since 
the major sperm protein that Bennett isolated in Ward's lab is in- 
deed specific for sperm, she was able to test Boveri's hypothesis. 
The result was unambiguous: the gene occurs in all cells, 
body and sex alike, and it is not rearranged in those cells that do 
not need it. It is just not expressed. Thus, at least for this gene, 
Boveri was mistaken. 



Regulation of Chorion Gene Amplification. The fruit fly, once an 
organism of choice for generations of classical geneticists, 
has reemerged over the last two decades as a valuable experimental 
system in the laboratories of molecular biologists. At the 
Department of Embryology, staff member Allan Spradling uses 
Drosophila to probe the mechanisms that control the synthesis of 
eggshell protein. 

A female fruit fly produces eggs at an extraordinary rate, equal 
to more than half her body weight per day. Each egg that 
she lays is surrounded by a thin coat made up of six major types of 
protein. The genes responsible for producing these eggshell 
proteins, called chorion genes, are located in two clusters along the 
chromosomes. Each cell of a female fly contains just two 
copies of each chorion gene, with two genes in one cluster and four 
in the other. In most of her cells, these genes serve no use and are 
inactive. But in the ovarian cells, they are responsible for 
producing all the eggshell protein the adult female needs over a 
lifetime of egg laying. How can so few genes do this? 

Twenty hours before the beginning of eggshell production, all the 
chorion genes in the ovary cell begin to amplify, or increase 
in number. This quickly leads to the production of from sixteen to 



26 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

sixty additional copies of each gene. This process of gene 
amplification allows the female to produce an extraordinary amount 
of each chorion protein very quickly. 

In studying how chorion genes work, Spradling uses a gene 
transfer technique that he developed in 1982 with then staff mem- 
ber Gerald Rubin. The two scientists found that genes ferried into 
a fruit fly embryo via transposable elements (naturally mobile 
pieces of the chromosome) would be incorporated stably in the 
germline. Spradling and his present colleagues use the technique to 
transfer mutant chorion genes into fruit fly embryos; they 
then examine the offspring to see if the genes are properly ex- 
pressed. 

From the results of their experiments, they have found that 
chorion genes are regulated by two sets of controls: one set tells 
the genes to amplify, the other tells them when and where to make 
protein. The amplification control region is shared by all the genes 



-650 



CGTCTTCTGG CTACTGGATG CTGGTACCCT GAGCCTGGCC AACATCTAAA 
TTATATGGTA CTTTAAACTG ATGGTTTAAT CATTACATG GATTTTCTAA 



600 

TAATTTATTA TTCATTATTA AATGTTTGCG CCCACCCATA AGCCATTCAC 



ATTAAAAATG GTCATGTGAA GATAGCCACT CTTCTAACAA TCTAATCACA 



550 

AATTTGTGTA GCGCCAATTG AATGTTATAA AAAGCTTAGT GCGGCAGTTT 



TTTATAGTAA GAAATACAAT ACAATACAAT ACAATACAAT ACAATACAAT 



500 



GGAAAGTGGA ACGGTTGTGT TTATAATTTT ATTGTAATTT TATCTCAATT 
ACAATAGAAA GACAATCGAA TCTGCGC-AT CCGTGTGAAA TTCAAGGACT 



450 

TTTTTTGCTT TTGTATATAA ATTCTACCAA CGCAGCAGAA TTTTCAGGCC 



ACAGCTGGGT GGCTAATCAT TTCCCCCTAT CCA-TTACAC CTCGGATTAC 



400 

ACTGCCTTGA CTTCACTGTG TCACTGAAAA ATCGGTGTCA AGCTCTCGGC 



CTCTTATTCC GACTCCCGGA GTCTTGTGTC TGCCAATGCG GAACTATTTT 



350 

ACCGTGGGGC AAAGCAACTG CAATACTGAT CGAAACTATG CGGATCCGGA 



CGCTATCTGA ACAGACGTTC GGACCTCGAT ATGCGGCAAA GATTCACAGC 



300 



CCGGCTGTTG ATTCCGATTC GGTGGCAATG TGTTCGTTGT TATTGTAAAA 



DNA sequence of two regions of DNA (upper 
and lower sequence) in Drosophila that Allan 
Spradling and his colleagues at Embryology find 
gcacgaagag tcatgcggtc ggaatcttac gtaatgggtc tcgtctctgg essential for proper chorion (eggshell) gene am- 
plification. The regions lie just upstream from 
major chorion genes and include repeated se- 
250 quences (small arrows) near a common 12-nucleo- 

tagacgatgg cgtaagcaca gacgcctgct atctggaccg gcccgaattg tide-long sequence (large arrrows). Spradling 
cgggcaatgg caactgggca gtgggcagtg gggttttcgg gttgtggctt proposes that the common sequence lies within 

the origin, or "start site," of DNA replication 
200 used during amplification of each gene cluster. 

The numbers at left count nucleotides before the 



AGAGCCAGCA TTTTGGCCA 



CTACGTAAGT GGAAGAG 



beginning of the associated chorion genes. 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 27 

within each gene cluster, but each individual gene contains 
a separate region that controls protein manufacture. 

Last year, Spradling and postdoctoral fellow Diane de Cicco 
determined that the amplification control region of one chorion clus- 
ter was confined to a sequence 3800 nucleotides long. This 
year, Spradling and postdoctoral fellows Terry Orr- Weaver, Bar- 
bara Wakimoto, and Laura Kalfayan found that only a small part of 
this sequence was actually required for amplification — one 
about 430 nucleotides long. An amplification control region was also 
defined, using the gene transfer method, within the second 
chorion gene cluster. 

In each cluster, control sequences are located from 200 to 600 
nucleotides upstream from a major chorion gene. Both regions con- 
tain repeated sequences near a similar 12-nucleotide-long sequence. 
Spradling speculates that this common sequence lies within 
the "origin" — the point where the DNA starts to replicate itself 
when making extra gene copies. 

Very little is known about the structure and function of specific 
replication origins in the chromosomes of higher organisms. 
Indeed, the very existence of origins has been for years a matter of 
debate; some scientists believe that replication begins at random 
sites along the chromosomes. Spradling is hopeful that further elab- 
oration of the chorion amplification control regions will eventually 
provide a model system for understanding, in general, how the ori- 
gin of replication works in chromosomes of higher organisms. 

Chromosome Organization during Development 

Embryology staff member Joseph Gall is interested in the 
structure and function of chromosomes, particularly in ways in 
which chromosome activity affects development of the embryo. He 
studies chromosomes of maturing egg cells (oocytes) before 
fertilization because the products of these chromosomes control 
events during oocyte growth and early embryo development. 

Oocyte chromosomes are known as "lampbrush" chromosomes, a 
name given them in the nineteenth century because of their 
fancied resemblance to the brushes used for cleaning lamp chim- 
neys. Their brushiness is caused by hundreds of looped-out seg- 
ments that are sites for very active mRNA synthesis. (See Frontis- 
piece photo, p. 2.) In a few organisms, such as the newt and 
frog, the lampbrush chromosomes reach gigantic proportions — up 
to a millimeter in length. This permits a variety of molecular and 
microscopical studies that cannot be done on any other organism. 

Gall and his colleagues focus their attention on a particular 
cluster of loops on newt lampbrush chromosomes that transcribe 
mRNA for histone proteins. (The histones are an important group 
of five proteins that are associated with DNA in the chromosomes.) 



28 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

Their approach is to determine exactly which RNA sequences are 
transcribed when histone mRNA is being made. To do this, they 
use an in situ nucleic acid hybridization technique that Gall devel- 
oped several years ago. In this technique, a radioactively 
labeled RNA or DNA probe (made in the test tube) is bound to 
complementary RNA molecules made by the oocyte itself on the 
lampbrush chromosome loop. 

Gall and his co-workers have found that the histone loops syn- 
thesize not only the mRNA for the histone proteins, but, contrary 
to current models of gene transcription, they also synthesize RNA 
from other regions of the chromosome adjacent to the histone 
genes. In particular, the loops synthesize RNA from a region that 
contains a very simple, highly repetitive sequence known 
as satellite DNA. This was especially surprising, for it has been 
assumed for many years that such simple repetitive DNA se- 
quences — whose function is yet unknown — are never transcribed. 

Gall and his colleagues have since discovered other regions in 
lampbrush chromosomes of newt and frog where such simple repet- 
itive DNA sequences are transcribed. They are attempting 
to understand what significance this unusual transcription may have 
in the egg cell. 

Meanwhile, in other experiments, Gall's group is studying 
structural features of chromosomes, especially the very ends of 
chromosomes — the telomeres, which pose special mechanical prob- 
lems during replication. Gall et al. hope to learn how the 
ends replicate and what special structures they possess. But be- 
cause at the molecular level chromosomes are so large, and because 
most small DNA molecules produced by living cells are circular — 
probably to avoid the mechanical problems posed by replication — 
the group finds it more convenient in studying the telomere to ana- 
lyze model systems instead. The model systems they use are 
small, linear molecules of protozoa. 

One of these linear molecules is found in the nucleus of the 
protozoan Tetrahymena; another is found in the mitochondria of the 
fresh water Hydra. Gall and his colleagues are attempting to 
determine the nucleotide sequences at the ends of the Hydra mole- 
cule. Once they have done this, they hope to compare the se- 
quences with sequences found at the ends of other linear molecules. 
In the case of the Tetrahymena molecule, they already know the 
end sequences. They are therefore concentrating on how the mole- 
cule replicates. 

The Molecular Analysis of Geminiviruses 

Gemini viruses are small, single-stranded plant viruses transmit- 
ted by either whiteflies or leafhoppers. One of them, Maize Streak 
virus (MSV), is transmitted by leafhoppers and, like other 
members of this subgroup of geminiviruses, infects a wide variety 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 29 

of plants. Squash Leaf Curl virus (SqLCV) is transmitted 
by whiteflies and has a broad host range that includes squash and 
beans — a range that is uncharacteristically broad for a whitefly- 
transmitted gemini virus. 

At the Department of Embryology, staff associate Sondra 
Lazarowitz uses the tools of molecular biology in her efforts to un- 
derstand the life cycles and host ranges of MSV and SqLCV. She 
and her colleagues have succeeded in cloning the various 
DNA components of each. They have identified four distinct DNA 
components in SqLCV-infected plants, each about 3000 nucleotides 
long. Based on host range and a comparison of the DNA 
sequences of these four components with each other and with com- 
ponents from other whitefly-transmitted viruses (whose genomes 
typically contain not four but two distinct DNA components, i.e., 
bipartite), they have determined that SqLCV is two distinct but 
closely related bipartite whitefly-transmitted gemini viruses. 

The genome of Maize Streak virus, in marked contrast, contains 
only a single 2700-nucleotide-long DNA component. This suggests 
to Lazarowitz that MSV represents what may be genetically a very 
simple gemini virus. Its molecular analysis has the potential, 
she says, of providing some exciting insights into mechanisms of 
gene expression in geminiviruses and, possibly, in plant cells. Fur- 
thermore, the molecular differences that separate the relatively 
simple MSV, with its wide host range, from the more complex gen- 
omes of the SqLCVs — one with a typically narrow host range, the 
other with a broader range — provide nicely juxtaposed systems for 
her study of viral determinants of pathogenesis and host range. 

The Changing Genome 

To understand the evolution of species it appears 
that we will need to know the principal sources and 
kinds of genomic variation and the mechanisms or 
systems through which genomic variations affect 
genes, their expression and the phenotype. 

Roy Britten 

Evolution and Development 

J. T. Bonner, ed. (Springer Verlag) 

1982 

It is clear that as evolution proceeds, new species continually 
emerge from old; DNA mutates to form new gene combinations, 
the chromosomes move around to form new arrangements. Without 
these changes, organisms could not adapt to their changing 
environments, and life might long ago have become extinct. What is 
not clear, however, is exactly why, how, and how often these 
events occur. 

Normal mechanisms of genetic recombination operate in most 
higher organisms; they ensure that each individual is slightly differ- 



30 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

ent from its parents. But there are also other, yet poorly 
understood, mechanisms of genetic recombination whose actions 
serve to rearrange the genome in "illegitimate" ways. One such ve- 
hicle is the action of transposable elements. Transposable 
elements are movable pieces of DNA that were first discovered in 
maize about forty years ago by Barbara McClintock, a staff 
member at Carnegie's former Department of Genetics. McClintock 
found that maize elements could cause mutations to the genes and 
massive chromosomal rearrangements. 

McClintock's discovery was not fully appreciated until the late 
1970s, when scientists working at the molecular level began finding 
transposable elements in a wide range of organisms, from 
bacteria to man. At about the same time, Nina Fedoroff began an 
effort to characterize at the molecular level the maize transposable 
elements that McClintock had discovered using only genetic 
techniques. Today, Fedoroff continues this work at the Department 
of Embryology, where she is a staff member. Meanwhile, 
Roy Britten, a Carnegie staff member with a joint Carnegie-Caltech 
appointment at the Kerckhoff Marine Laboratory in Corona 
del Mar, California, examines what roles these movable elements, 
or their derivatives, may have played during evolution. 

Transposable Elements in Maize. Nina Fedoroff and her col- 
leagues last year isolated and sequenced the DNA of several ele- 
ments in a two-element family of transposable elements in maize 
that McClintock called the Activator-Dissociator (Ac-Ds) family. 
This year, while continuing to study this family, they began the iso- 
lation of elements belonging to another, more complex family 
discovered by McClintock — the Suppressor-mutator (Spm) family. 

McClintock found that in the Ac-Ds family, Ds can only 
transpose (move) when Ac is present. (Ds elements are most often 
defective derivatives of Ac.) In the Spm family, however, 
she found the genetic interactions between fully functional Spm ele- 
ments and their defective derivatives (dSpm's) to be more 
complex. She observed that while an Spm element is required for 
the movement of a defective element into a gene, the mutations 
promoted by this movement may not be complete. In those daugh- 
ter cells that do not contain Spm, the mutations are "leaky," that 
is, they give only partial expression to the gene. An "invaded" pur- 
ple pigment gene, for example, would still make pigment, but 
in a lighter shade. 

When a functional Spm element is introduced into a genome that 
contains a leaky dSpm-mutated gene, however, that gene is 
suppressed, or turned off, entirely. Furthermore, because a func- 
tional Spm is able to promote the transposition of dSpm 
away from the mutated gene, the gene can revert, or back-mutate, 
to normal function. Functional Spm elements thus behave 
genetically as if they have two distinct functions — a "suppressor" 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 31 



Suppressor- mutator 
I 



Spm-w 
dSpm-8 and 13 
dSpm-7995 
dSpm-7977 
dSpm-8004 



Diagram of the maize Suppressor-mutator (Spm) transposable element (open 
bar) that Nina Fedoroff and her colleagues at the Department of Embryology iso- 
lated during the report year. The dark bars indicate what portions of the intact 
element are missing in several isolated mutant Spm elements. Spm-w has an in- 
ternal deletion of about 1600 nucleotides near the center of the element. The ele- 
ments designated dSpm-7995, dSpm-7977, and dSpm-8004 have more-extensive 
deletions, encompassing half or more of the intact element. The small deletion in 
Spm-w alters the expression of the transposition function, while the larger dele- 
tion in the right half of the dSpm-7995 abolishes it entirely. Fedoroff thus believes 
that the transposition control function is encoded in the element's right half. 



function and a "mutator," or transposition, function. 

Fedoroff is curious to know how this dual function works on the 
molecular level. She and her colleagues this year isolated 
and analyzed one fully functional Spm element and several defective 
derivatives. The functional element is about 8200 nucleotides long 
and appears indistinguishable from the genetically similar 
Enhancer element isolated last year in H. Saedler's laboratory at 
the Max Planck Institute in Germany. The defective elements have 
extensive deletions encompassing half or more of the intact 
Spm element. Fedoroff et al. found that a small 1600-nucleotide- 
long deletion in the middle of one of the elements caused 
an altered transposition function; the element was able to excise 
from a locus, but it did so late in development and less frequently 
than the intact element. Another defective element had a 
larger deletion overlapping the 1600-nucleotide segment and ex- 
tending nearly all the way to the end of the right side. The func- 
tional result was that this element could not transpose at 
all. It appears, then, that the element's transposition function is 
encoded in the right half of the element. This adds confirming 
evidence to Saedler's previous finding that the right half of the in- 
tact Enhancer element encodes an RNA transcript; it is likely, 
therefore, that this transcript encodes the element's transposition 
function. 

Evolutionary Rearrangements of DNA. Barbara McClintock 
found that maize transposable elements could promote reversible 
gene mutations in regular patterns throughout development. But 
there is little evidence that these movable elements perform such 



32 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

controlling functions in other organisms. In fact, no purpose has yet 
been assigned to transposable elements. All the same, many 
scientists — including Roy Britten — believe that these movable 
pieces of DNA, by their very presence in the genome, may have 
profound effect over evolutionary time. 

As a staff member of Carnegie's Department of Terrestial 
Magnetism during the 1960s, Britten found that some sequences of 
DNA — those with no gene-coding functions — existed in higher or- 
ganisms in thousands, even millions of copies per genome. 
He speculated at the time that these repeated sequences were in- 
volved in the regulation of genes. Since then, he has come to be- 
lieve that changes to these non-coding sequences — of the 
sort promoted by transposable elements — could affect gene regula- 
tion and thus more profoundly affect species evolution than 
changes to the genes themselves. 

For many years, Britten and his colleagues at Kerckhoff have 
been using DNA hybridization techniques to compare the DNA of 
various sea urchin species known to share common ancestors. They 
have found that repeated sequences in the sea urchin genome have 
been rearranged a great deal during evolution. This year, in 
related experiments on the genomes of chimpanzees, gorillas, oran- 
gutans, and man, they found evidence that repeated sequences in 
the primate genome have also been much rearranged. Two widely 
interspersed repeat families — Kpnl and Alu, which make up several 
percent of human DNA and which may be transposable — 
have gained or lost at least half of their individual interspersed 
repeats during evolution of the higher apes. 

The majority of the genome in higher organisms is made up of 
non-coding, single-copy DNA whose sequences appear to undergo 
neutral drift during evolution. (Drift rate — the substitution of one 
nucleotide base for another — is a good measure of the underlying 
mutation rate.) The small fraction of the DNA that codes for genes 
changes much more slowly than the non-coding DNA. This 
is presumably the result of selection against changes in the encoded 
proteins. 

Britten has assembled from the published literature a set of 
nearly fifty interspecies comparisons of DNA sequences for cases 
where some estimate of the divergence time of the lineages could 
be made. His data show that the rate of mutation differs 
significantly between species. Among sea urchins, rodents, and 
some insects, the drift rate averages 0.66 per cent per million 
years. In primates and birds, the rate averages 0.15. It appears 
that the mutation rate among primates slowed considerably at 
about the time the lineages leading to the lower and higher pri- 
mates diverged. Britten believes that this knowledge may have a 
significant influence on future evolutionary models. 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 33 



Membranes: Interaction, Communication, Regulation 

The composition of the plasma membrane 
determines to a large extent what signals are 
perceived by each cell and what responses each 
cell type can make. 

Douglas Fambrough 

Department of Embryology 

July 1985 

Biological membranes consist of a semi-fluid, two-layer film of 
proteins, glycoproteins, and lipids. These ultrathin but ultrastrong 
structures play important roles in and among cells. The outer, or 
cell surface, membrane is each cell's interface with other 
cells and the extracellular fluids of the organism. It directs traffic 
into and out of the cell and communicates with nearby cells to regu- 
late the complex interactions accompanying growth and develop- 
ment. Membranes are also found inside cells, where they 
surround and protect each separate organelle. 

Carnegie scientists study membranes using a variety of tech- 
niques and a variety of biological systems. At the Department of 
Embryology, Richard Pagano studies lipid transport in hamster 
cells, Douglas Fambrough studies the sodium pump on nerve and 
muscle membranes in chick cells, and Martin Snider investigates 
the roles of cell surface receptor proteins in mammalian cells. 
Meanwhile, at Plant Biology, Arthur Grossman has begun an effort 
to examine how the plasma membranes surrounding algal 
cells regulate nutrient uptake. 

Membrane Lipid Traffic in Animal Cells. Members of the 
laboratory of Richard Pagano have developed methods for studying 
lipid transport in cells using fluorescent analogs of natural 
lipids. It is thereby possible to examine the movements of lipid 
molecules in living cells by fluorescence microscopy and to correlate 
these observations with classical biochemical investigations. Some 
examples of the approach have been discussed in previous 
Year Books. Highlighted here is postdoctoral fellow Paul Uster's 
development of a technique called resonance energy transfer (RET) 
microscopy. The method greatly enhances the apparent resolution 
of the microscope and will allow the investigators to carry 
out certain experiments on lipid transport and distribution in cells 
which, until now, have not been possible. 

RET relies on the interactions which occur between two fluores- 
cent molecules if the emission band of one, which serves as 
the energy donor, overlaps the excitation band of the second, the 



34 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

energy acceptor. When these conditions are met, the energy from a 
photon absorbed by the energy donor can be transferred to 
the energy acceptor. This results in dramatic quenching of the do- 
nor's fluorescence and an enhanced emission of the energy 
acceptor, which then fluoresces as if it had been excited directly. 
Because RET decreases in proportion to the inverse sixth power of 
the distance separating donor and acceptor, it is only detected 
when these molecules are very close together. 

RET had been used in many systems as a "spectroscopic ruler" 
to measure distances between and within molecules. Most of these 
studies have been carried out in solution, using a conventional 
fluorimeter to measure fluorescence. However, to the knowledge of 
the investigators, RET has not previously been used as a visual, 
microscopic tool. Since the resolution of light microscopy is a few 
tenths of a micron, while the distance over which RET is 
effective is much less (=^100 A), Uster and Pagano reasoned that it 
should be possible to enhance greatly the effective resolution of the 
microscope by visualizing energy transfer between donor and 
acceptor molecules. 

In their initial studies, Uster and Pagano used NBD and Sulfo- 
rhodamine (SRh) as the fluorescent energy donor and acceptor mol- 
ecules. These probes can be conveniently coupled to proteins or lip- 
ids, and they have the necessary spectral overlap for RET. 
(NBD is excited by blue light and emits green; SRh is excited by 
green light and emits red.) The investigators modified their micro- 
scope with appropriate filters to define three "channels" for 
observing fluorescence. In the "donor" (NBD) channel, the specimen 
is excited with blue light, and the resulting green NBD- 
fluorescence is observed through a narrow "window," which only 
passes green light. In the "acceptor" (SRh) channel, the specimen 
is excited with green light and the resulting red fluorescence is ob- 
served through filters which only pass red light. In the "transfer" 
channel, the specimen is excited with the blue light (appropriate for 
excitation of NBD) but observation of the emitted light is 
restricted to red wavelengths, characteristic of SRh-fluorescence. 
Thus any fluorescence seen in the transfer channel is due 
to energy transfer between NBD and SRh; 

Using this new configuration, the investigators carried out initial 
experiments demonstrating the feasibility of energy transfer 
microscopy. An example is shown in the photos opposite. Two sets 
of baby hamster kidney cells were incubated with a fluorescent 
NBD analog of phosphatidic acid. This lipid intensely labels intra- 
cellular membranes, including the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochon- 
dria, nuclear envelope, and cytoplasmic lipid droplets. One 
set of cells (designated " - Acceptor" on figure; photos A and C) 
received no further treatment. The second set (" + Acceptor"; pho- 
tos B and D) had been previously incubated with a sulforhodamine 
derivative of decylamine. This molecule labels the endoplasmic re- 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 



35 




For use in their studies of lipid transport and distribution in 
cells, Paul Uster and Richard Pagano at the Department of Em- 
bryology are developing resonance energy transfer (RET) micro- 
scopy — a new technique which enhances the apparent resolution 
of the fluorescence microscope. See text, opposite, for explanation 
of the method and photos A-D, above. 



ticulum, mitochondria, and nuclear envelope, but not intracellular 
lipid droplets. 

When the doubly labeled cells were examined in the donor 
channel, only the intracellular lipid droplets were seen (photo B). 
This is because NBD-fluorescence was quenched by SRh in those 
cell compartments where the two probes co-localized. When the 
doubly labeled cells were examined in the transfer channel, SRh 
fluorescence was visible (photo D). Only those intracellular com- 



36 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

partments with both probes present were fluorescent. This was due 
to RET between the donor and acceptor molecules which 
were in close proximity to one another. 

In control experiments where cells were labeled with either the 
NBD-lipid alone (photo C) or the SRh-decylamine alone (not 
shown), background fluorescence in the transfer channel was mini- 
mal. Thus, the investigators conclude that both donor quenching 
and acceptor enhancement can be seen in living cells using RET mi- 
croscopy. 

Pagano and his colleagues expect to use RET microscopy soon to 
(1) unequivocally determine whether different lipids, or a 
lipid and a protein, are in the same intracellular compartment, (2) 
isolate a single compartment for detailed study if the fluorescent 
lipid of interest has a multi-compartment distribution, and (3) quan- 
tify the kinetics of transbilayer movement and intracellular 
translocation of lipids in situ. 

The Sodium Pump. Embedded in the lipid matrix of cell surface 
membranes are many of the proteins that regulate cell metabolism. 
Douglas Fambrough is particularly interested in the proteins that 
form the sodium pump — the principal mechanism used by excitable 
nerve and muscle cells in maintaining essential transmembrane ion- 
ic imbalances. 

Several years ago, having developed a cell line that secretes a 
monoclonal antibody to the sodium pump, Fambrough initiated 
quantitative studies on the number and distribution of sodium 
pump molecules in neurons and muscle fibers. His preliminary stud- 
ies suggested several new ideas about the sodium pump and 
its regulation. For example, he found that different levels of abun- 
dance of the sodium pump in different muscle fibers of the 
same muscle correlated exactly with the variety of muscle fiber 
types defined by classical (but not well understood) histochemical 
techniques. (These differences had not been appreciated from ear- 
lier studies on the biochemistry of whole muscles.) Thus, 
fibers used for long-term steady maintenance of muscle tone require 
a modest abundance of sodium pumps, while fibers recruited 
for short-term, quick bursts require high levels. 

This finding suggested, in turn, that there might be a rapid, up- 
and-down regulation of the sodium pump in muscle fibers to set 
abundance at appropriate levels for muscle function. Fambrough 
and his colleagues followed up this idea during the report year with 
an extensive study of the modulation of sodium pump abundance in 
skeletal muscle fibers grown in tissue culture. They found that, as 
conditions permit faster influx of sodium ions, muscle fibers show a 
marked increase in the rate of biosynthesis of sodium pump 
molecules. As the system approaches steady-state, the rate of bio- 
synthesis returns to normal, although with a continuing high influx 
of sodium molecules the muscle fibers maintain an elevated level of 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 37 

sodium pump abundance. This maintenance is accomplished 
by a decrease in the rate of degradation of sodium pump molecules. 
Once enhanced sodium influx to the muscle fibers is stopped, 
sodium pump levels rapidly return to normal. 

In his studies on the origin, transport, and assembly of the 
sodium pump, Fambrough is laying the groundwork for a more 
general study of how sodium pump structure is correlated with 
function and regulation. In this effort, he and his colleagues are 
employing many techniques of genetic engineering. For example, 
they are attempting to clone the DNAs encoding parts of 
not only the sodium pump but also the calcium pump, which is a 
protein of skeletal muscle fiber involved in muscle contraction. The 
sodium and calcium pumps are homologous in structure and 
function, yet they differ in ion selectivity and mechanisms of regu- 
lation. Fambrough et at. hope that comparisons will yield 
information about what structural differences are essential for dif- 
ferences in function and bioregulation. Fambrough intends 
to continue these studies at the Johns Hopkins University Biology 
Department, which he joined on July 1, 1985. 

Membrane Traffic: Receptors. The cell surface membrane is 
intimately related to a complex set of at least ten different internal 
organelles. Constituents are exchanged among these organelles and 
the cell surface by a traffic of membrane vesicles. Martin 
Snider, a staff associate at the Department of Embryology, is inter- 
ested in the nature of this traffic. Specifically, he is interested in 
the movement of cell surface receptors. Receptors are proteins that 
selectively bind extracellular molecules needed by the cell 
(for example, hormones and nutrients). Once bound, a receptor and 
its passenger move into the cell in membrane vesicles. The 
receptor then releases its bound molecule at a target site and rapid- 
ly returns to the membrane surface. 

Snider and his colleagues have developed a novel approach to 
track receptors in cells. The technique uses special enzymes — 
"marker enzymes" — that are found in particular intracellular com- 
partments. Snider modifies a receptor on the cell surface 
so that it can be acted on by a particular marker enzyme molecule. 
He then allows the receptor to bind to an extracellular substance, 
move inside, deposit its passenger, and return to the surface. He 
then examines the receptor to see if it has been acted on 
by the marker enzyme. If it has, he knows it has passed through 
the compartment that contains that enzyme. 

Snider and his co-workers have used this approach to study the 
movement of transferrin receptor through the Golgi complex. 
(Mammalian cells use this receptor to get iron from the 
circulation.) Last year, they snowed that the transferrin receptor 
moves through a distal part of the Golgi. (This is the region closest 
to the cell surface.) This year, they have shown that the 



38 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

receptor also enters a proximal Golgi region, although it does so 
more slowly. In addition, a large number of other cell membrane 
proteins also pass through this region. The Golgi has been thought 
to function primarily in the synthesis and secretion of proteins from 
the cell. Snider' s results suggest that the outward membrane 
traffic required for secretion and the inward membrane traffic of re- 
ceptors and other proteins actually intersect in this organelle. 

Regulation of Nutrient Uptake in Algae. When a cell is deprived 
of a needed nutrient, the profile of its membrane changes. At the 
Department of Plant Biology, Arthur Grossman and postdoctoral 
fellow Laura Green have recently begun to look at some of these 
changes in the cell surface membrane proteins which accompany 
sulfate deprivation in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. 
Their work is part of an effort to better understand the means by 
which organisms acommodate stresses in their environments. 

Grossman and Green found that membranes of algal cells trans- 
ferred to a sulfur-free medium dramatically increase their 
capacity to take up sulfur. Preliminary evidence suggests that this 
increase may reflect synthesis and assembly into the membrane of 
an inorganic sulfate transport system present in low levels 
in sulfate-sufficient cells. In the future, Grossman and Green hope 
to identify specific membrane protein(s) associated with this event 
and to examine ways in which synthesis is regulated. 

Photosynthesis: Structure, Function, and Response to Stress 

The center of interest for the photosynthetic 
process is the chloroplast. The chloroplasts are as 
important to an understanding of this process . . . 
as the chromosomes are for heredity. 

H. A. Spoehr 

Chairman, Division of Plant Biology 

1938 

A plant cell contains from one to forty chloroplasts. Within each 
chloroplast is an intricate array of membrane-bound organelles 
where the complex process of photosynthesis takes place. These 
organelles are called thylakoids. Each thylakoid contains two pig- 
ment-protein complexes called photosystems. Both photosystem I 
and photosystem II contain light-gathering "antenna" complexes of 
chlorophyll a, carotenoids, and other pigments, which capture light 
from a broad range of the spectrum. (Photosystem I traps light 
in long, red wavelengths; photosystem II traps light in shorter, 
redder wavelengths.) The trapped energy in each system passes to 
a reaction center complex (also in the thylakoid), which contains a 
special chlorophyll a molecule that starts the next step of 
the photosynthetic process. 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 39 

At the Department of Plant Biology, interest in photosynthesis 
remains as strong as ever. Staff member Jeanette Brown 
concentrates on the structural arrangement of pigments and pro- 
teins in the thylakoid. Meanwhile, David Fork, Joseph Berry, Olle 
Bjorkman, and their colleagues investigate how the photosynthetic 
apparati respond to environmental stress. Evidence gathered over 
the years suggests that primary damage to the light-gathering sys- 
tem in stressed plants occurs within photosystem II, but 
knowledge of the exact site, as well as the molecular mechanisms 
involved, is still lacking. Filling in this gap in knowledge 
is a major goal at the Department. 

Pigment Structure in the Thylakoid. For many years, Jeanette 
Brown has studied the functional arrangement of the pigments in- 
volved in photosynthesis. She and her colleagues (which include 
this year Lise Caron, a Carnegie-del Duca fellow, and Grazyna 
Bialek-Bylka, a postdoctoral fellow from Poland) have recently de- 
veloped procedures for isolating three major pigment-protein com- 
plexes from thylakoid membranes without altering their molecular 
configurations. By means of extensive absorption and fluorescence 
spectroscopic studies, they have characterized the nature of 
chlorophyll a bound to the different proteins of each. 

Last year, they began using a newly acquired high-performance 
liquid chromatography apparatus to separate various other 
chlorophylls and carotenoids. The apparatus enables them to mea- 
sure pigments in amounts as low as a few millionths of a 
gram. So far they find that p-carotene is bound only to the reaction 
center complexes, whereas the other carotenes and xanthophylls 
are bound to the antenna complexes. Eventually, they hope to for- 
mulate a molecular model for how all the pigments are functionally 
arranged. 

Photoinhibition. Light is the driving force of photosynthesis. As 
its intensity increases, so does the rate of photosynthesis. 
Under certain conditions, however, light intensity may exceed the 
capacity with which it can be used. Too much light may 
damage the photosynthetic system, causing what is called photo- 
inhibition. Scientists at the Department of Plant Biology have pre- 
viously shown that photoinhibition occurs when plants grown in 
weak light are suddenly exposed to bright light. Photoinhibition can 
also occur when plants native to sunny locations are exposed to 
such environmental stresses as low temperature, drought, and high 
salinity. 

Olle Bjorkman is especially interested in the interactive effects of 
light with different environmental stress factors. This is a 
difficult area to study because plant cells possess repair mechanisms 
that may permit partial or full recovery from photoinhibition once a 
stress is removed. Hence, Bjorkman notes, it seems probable that 



40 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

the recovery process may proceed concurrently with the inhibition 
process; the observed photoinhibition may thus reflect the balance 
between these two processes. Stress factors could act either by ac- 
celerating the photoinhibitory process or by suppressing the 
recovery process. 

During the report year, Bjorkman and Barbara Demmig (a 
postdoctoral fellow from Wiirzburg, Germany) have investigated 
the kinetics of the photoinhibition and recovery processes in plants 
grown under different light regimes. They find that when 
sun-grown leaves held at low light for an hour or more are suddenly 
exposed to bright light, they show rapid and pronounced 
reduction in fluorescence yield, a measurement made at - 196°C. If 
the leaf is returned to shade before the measurement is made, no 
evidence of photoinhibition is found. When, however, shade-grown 
leaves are exposed to bright light, irreversible photoinhibition-re- 
lated changes in fluorescence occur. Bjorkman suggests that the re- 
versible reduction in fluorescence yield in sun-grown leaves may be 
indicative of the operation in these leaves of a protective 
mechanism that in shade leaves is poorly developed. He and his 
colleagues are currently exploring this possibility. 

Bjorkman, Joseph Berry, and Dennis Greer (a postdoctoral fellow 
from New Zealand) completed a study this year on the temperature 
dependence of recovery from photoinhibition. This group found that 
in light-damaged bean cells no measurable recovery occurred 
below 10°C. But above 10°, recovery increased strongly with tem- 
perature until it reached a maximum at about 30°C. Strongly pro- 
moted by weak light, the recovery process was blocked by 
applying to leaves an inhibitor known to prevent chloroplast-encod- 
ed protein synthesis. It appears from these results, says 
Bjorkman, that recovery from photoinhibition depends on the oper- 
ation of some kind of light-dependent repair mechanism. Bjorkman 
and postdoctoral fellow Max Seyfried are currently investigating 
this possibility. 

Bjorkman has also continued his studies with Australian man- 
groves. The sun-exposed leaves of these plants, which live in full- 
strength sea water, can suffer appreciable photoinhibitory 
damage. Last year, Bjorkman suggested that physiological 
"drought" associated with the high salinity of the water predisposes 
the mangroves to photoinhibition, just as desiccation predisposes 
desert plants to photoinhibition. Experiments conducted during the 
report year confirmed this hypothesis. But, contrary to expecta- 
tion, Bjorkman and Demmig found no evidence that high salinity 
suppresses the recovery process. Thus, it appears that high salinity 
(or the resulting water stress) acts upon the inhibition process it- 
self. 

Heat Stress. David Fork, like Bjorkman, studies the effects of 
stress on photosynthetic mechanisms. His studies, however, are 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 41 

primarily at the biophysical level, and are directed at understand- 
ing how the photosynthetic apparatus — particularly the thylakoid 
membranes — react to heat stress. In this work, he and postdoctoral 
fellows Prasanna Mohanty and Satoshi Hoshina have developed a 
sensitive probe, called delayed light emission, to detect early photo- 
synthetic heat damage. 

Delayed light is the extremely faint glow emitted by all photo- 
synthetic plants after they have been illuminated. Fork and his col- 
leagues found that slow heating of plant samples until they were 
irreversibly damaged caused a gradual increase in delayed light. 
The luminescence reached a maximum and then declined to zero. 
The maximum for each plant was characteristic of the species as a 
whole. 

The group found similar declines in delayed light when measuring 
the effects of high temperature on various photosynthetic 
reactions that require the physical integrity of thylakoid mem- 
branes. About ten years ago, former Plant Biology fellows Ulrich 
Schreiber and Paul Armond suggested that heat treatment led to a 
physical dissociation of the thylakoid membrane's photosystem II 
chlorophyll-protein complexes (Year Book 76, p. 341). 

This idea was confirmed and extended by electron microscopic 
measurements done in the University of London laboratory of for- 
mer fellow Patrick Williams. Williams found that mild heating of 
bean cells caused the dissociation of the chlorophyll alb light-har- 
vesting pigment protein embedded within the thylakoid membrane. 
Continued heating above this temperature led to phase separation 
of a particular class of lipids that do not form the sort of 
bilayers usually assumed to exist in biological membranes. After 
heating, these lipids were seen to have rearranged themselves in 
repeated arrays of cylindrical structures. Williams suggested that 
these lipids may play an important role in holding the light- 
harvesting pigment proteins to the thylakoid membrane and that 
their exclusion from the membrane during heat treatment could un- 
derlie the resulting damage. 

In further study of this phenomenon this year, Williams, Fork, 
and Arindam Sen from the Roswell Park Memorial Institute in Buf- 
falo saw in heated chloroplasts from pea that heat-induced 
disorganization of thylakoid membranes gave rise to a delayed light 
emission response, as well as several other changes. Fork 
notes that all of the observed changes may be related to the ap- 
pearance of the non-bilayer lipid structures. 

From the results of these and other experiments, Fork believes 
that delayed light emission is a valuable tool in the detection of 
heat-induced changes occurring in chloroplast organization and 
function. He notes that the technique may even some day serve as 
a useful method of screening plants for tolerances to high 
temperature. 



42 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Serendipity and RuBisCO 

Every once in a while experiments lead to 
unexpected discoveries. 

Joseph Berry 

Department of Plant Biology 

July 1985 

Plants have developed ingenious ways to adapt to environmental 
extremes. About a decade ago, Joseph Berry discovered that algal 
cells deprived of carbon dioxide could manufacture a transport sys- 
tem that allowed them to take advantage of bicarbonate (HC0 3 ~). 
Once C0 2 levels returned to normal, the bicarbonate system 
vanished. This year, Berry and his colleagues unexpectedly discov- 
ered yet another adaptive mechanism — one that operates not in 
emergency, but under normal conditions. 

The discovery of this system came as a surprise. Berry had 
originally set up a series of experiments designed to investigate dif- 
ferences in the activity of a major photosynthetic enzyme 
among plants of different lineages. He and his colleagues had earlier 
found that this enzyme, called RuBisCO (ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate 
carboxylase/oxygenase), is able to function with varying efficiency 
in plants of different species — presumably because the enzymes 
have slightly different amino acid sequences. In the course of their 
experiments last year, Berry and postdoctoral fellow Jeffrey 
Seemann uncovered unexpected variation in the activity of Ru- 
BisCO in a single species, the common bean. 

When first detected, this variation in bean was, according to 
Berry, a "nuisance." With further study, however, he and Seemann 
found that the variation was quite interesting. It appeared, 
in fact, to be a manifestation of the elaborate means by which the 
leaves of some plants (such as beans) regulate the activity of their 
RuBisCO. In the dark, when the leaf cannot conduct photosynthe- 
sis, some sort of inhibitor blocks RuBisCO's activity by 90%. In the 
bright sun of midday, however, when photosynthesis is at 
its peak, the inhibitor is not present and enzyme activity is high. 
Mechanisms that synthesize or degrade the inhibitor thus regulate 
its concentration in coordination with available light. This 
explains why the activity of RuBisCO originally appeared to be dif- 
ferent from plant to plant; Berry and Seemann had run some of the 
experiments too early in the morning. 

Berry notes that similar regulatory processes are known to exist 
in most of the major metabolic pathways. The mechanisms used to 
achieve this control are diverse, but they all appear to function as 
"valves." As such, they serve to maintain some degree of internal 
balance despite a constantly changing external environment. Two 
features of the system newly discovered in bean, however, are 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 43 

unique. First, the system seems to occur in some species, while it 
is lacking in others. Second, it operates by the formation 
of a specific "poison"; most regulatory mechanisms, in contrast, op- 
erate by the modification of a particular enzyme. 

Seemann and Berry have not yet identified the inhibiting sub- 
stance in bean responsible for RuBisCO regulation. But they know 
that it exists within the chloroplast, that it is a phosphorylated 
compound that can be degraded enzymatically, and that it works by 
binding to RuBisCO in place of the normal substrate. They 
plan to do chemical studies as soon as they have isolated sizable 
quantities. Meanwhile, they are continuing their efforts to find dif- 
ferences in the efficiency of RuBisCO among species. If superior 
variants can be identified, it is possible, writes Berry, that these 
variants could be used to obtain improved rates of photosynthesis 
from the same quantity of total protein. 

Light and Plant Growth 

Before the name "Very Low Fluence Response" 
was even coined, researchers in the Briggs 
laboratory were characterizing phytochrome- 
mediated responses of plants requiring very low 
levels of red light. . . . 

James Shinkle 

Department of Plant Biology 

July 1985 

Phytochrome-Mediated Responses. Plants require light to germi- 
nate, flower, and grow. The pigments regulating these activities re- 
spond to various wavelengths, or colors, of light. Some respond to 
blue, some to red, and some, like chlorophyll, respond to 
both blue and red. One interesting pigment — phytochrome — con- 
tains two forms; one responds to red light, the other responds to 
far red light. Phytochrome regulates many nonphotosynthetic 
chemical changes in plants, such as seed germination, flowering 
events, and stem elongation. 

In 1977, members of Winslow Briggs's lab at the Department of 
Plant Biology noticed that gravitropism (bending downward) in 
corn roots was stimulated by very low levels of red light — levels 
equivalent to from one to ten firefly flashes. Apparently only a very 
small portion of the total phytochrome in the plant was needed to 
absorb enough red light to cause a response. Such low-level 
phytochrome-mediated responses (which in 1980 were officially 
named "very low fluence responses," or VLFRs) have since become 
a major focus of the Briggs lab. 

Winslow Briggs spent the current report year in Freiburg, West 
Germany, on sabbatical leave, but members of his Plant Biology 
group continued their photomorphological studies. Predoctoral fel- 



44 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

low James Shinkle, for example, continued an effort to characterize 
the physiological conditions required for the expression of 
the VLFR in dark-grown oat and corn seedlings. These events in- 
clude the inhibition of stem elongation and the stimulation 
of leaf growth. Last year, Shinkle found that the hormone auxin 
had to be present in order for the VLFR response to occur. This 
year, he found that the VLFR response was specifically tied both 
to the auxin-promoted decrease in extracellular pH (which caused 
the response) and to high concentrations of potassium ions in the 
external medium (which eliminated the response). He found further 
that the actions of both extracellular pH and high potassium are 
rapid. This suggested to him that the effects are occurring early in 
the phytochrome signal transduction chain and could be of 
considerable value in elucidating the nature of this important series 
of events. 

Blue Light. The way that plants respond to red light is yet 
poorly understood. Even less understood is how plants respond to 
blue light. This year, postdoctoral fellow Moritoshi lino, in 
collaboration with Eduardo Zeiger of Stanford, discovered a blue 
light response in the outside (epidermal) leaf cells of the common 
spiderwort (Commelina communis). They discovered that the 
opening of the leafs stomata (gas-exchange valves) was directly 
proportional to the time of blue light irradiation, with a 100-second 
irradiation saturating the response. 

lino's discovery of a blue light response in the plant epidermis is 
significant because the stomata provides an amenable system for 
study: stomatal opening depends on light received by single cells 
(guard cells). The only other favorable option for the study of blue 
light responses — the bending of plants toward light (phototrop- 
ism) — occurs in organs containing many cells, each one of which is 
subject to differing light intensities. Analysis of the resulting data 
is thus quite difficult. 

Despite this, Tobias Baskin, a graduate student working in 
Briggs's lab, has made progress in understanding how blue light 
stimulates phototropism. He finds that seedlings of pea, a dicot, 
have phototropic responses to pulses of blue light that are nearly 
identical to those of maize, a monocot. It appears, therefore, that a 
common mechanism for phototropism may be widely shared 
in the plant kingdom. 



Ecology: Physiological Responses 

My approach emphasizes the comparative analysis 
of closely related species which share a common 
evolutionary background but differ in characters of 
interest. It is an approach powerfully developed by 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 



45 



Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey, working at Carnegie in 
the first half of this century. 

Christopher Field 

Department of Plant Biology 

July 1985 

Habitat Breadth in a Tropical Rain Forest. Many plant species 
in nature survive in a wide variety of habitat types. Others are 
strictly limited to narrowly denned environments. It is an accepted, 
but yet unproven, hypothesis that the broad-ranging species in any 
given habitat are not as finely tuned to their environments 
as are species that live in narrow ranges. This hypothesis is some- 
times stated with the adage that "a jack of all trades is 
the master of none." 

The newest staff member of the Department of Plant Biology, 
Christopher Field, this year examined some physiological aspects of 
habitat breadth in closely related species of the tropical genus 
Piper. Included in this genus is the most economically important of 
all spice plants — Piper nigrum, or black pepper. 

At his primary field site (in the Los Tuxtlas biological preserve of 
the National Autonomous University of Mexico), Field found eight 
Piper species, each of which live in only a single type of 
light habitat. He found two other Piper species that germinate and 
begin life in exposed clearing but persist as the forest re- 
establishes. Through their lives, individuals of these two species 
(the "generalists") thus encounter nearly the entire range of tropi- 
cal forest light habitats. 

So far, Field has concentrated on documenting physiological 
differences among the Piper species. In preliminary experiments, 
he has found, surprisingly, that the generalist species and 
those species that live only in sun are not dramatically different in 
their ability to adjust photosynthetic characteristics in response to 



Christopher Field measures light availa- 
bility for tropical pepper plants (Piper 
species) in Department of Plant Biology 
greenhouse. 




46 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

light during growth. However, the species show different modes of 
acclimation. The generalists vary their canopy architecture 
and leaf structure in response to habitat variation, while the sun 
species respond by changing their photosynthetic apparati. 

Field's work with Piper as a model system in understanding hab- 
itat preference and breadth is one of only a few studies designed to 
probe in detail the physiological ecology of lowland tropical forests. 
Tropical environments are among the Earth's most diverse, 
threatened, and biologically unknown ecosystems. His results thus 
promise to be of interest not only to his fellow ecologists 
but also to forest managers concerned with tropical ecosystem re- 
establishment. 

Resource Acquisition and Allocation. Resources in tropical 
forests are often limiting. Nearly all the nitrogen, for example, is 
held within the living biomass; little is found in the soil. 
Light is also in short supply for plants living under the forest cano- 
py. How, then, do plants solve the problem of getting enough 
nutrients and energy? How do they best allocate available resources 
to the leaves, roots, and reproductive organs? 

Problems of resource acquisition and allocation are at the heart of 
plant productivity studies recently initiated by Olle Bjorkman and 
his collaborator Harold Mooney of Stanford University. Plant pro- 
ductivity studies have been hampered by a lack of integrated infor- 
mation on how allocation patterns are affected by the environment 
and how they interact with photosynthetic activity and nitrogen ac- 
quisition processes over the lifetime of a plant. Bjorkman 
and Mooney are investigating some of these relationships using wild 
and cultivated varieties of radish as a model system. 

Wild radishes grow much faster and attain a larger size than do 
cultivated radish plants. In studies comparing one wild type and 
one cultivated genotype, Bjorkman and Mooney find that both spe- 
cies have the same leaf photosynthetic characteristics and 
that both acquire nitrogen with equal efficiency. They conclude, 
therefore, that the enormous difference in growth rate must be at- 
tributed to differences in resource allocation: wild radishes 
invest most of their energy and nutrients (up to 90%) into new leaf 
and root growth, while cultivated radishes allocate over 60% of 
their resources to storage. 

The extensive data base that Bjorkman and Mooney obtained for 
the wild type of photosynthetic characteristics, nitrogen uptake 
rates, and the response of these parameters and of the allocation 
pattern to different environmental conditions is now being used for 
the construction of a dynamic growth model. The two investigators 
hope that this model will provide a framework for examination of 
the implications of various growth strategies in different natural 
environments. 



THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 47 

Oxygen Evolution in the Biosphere 

For several years now, [we] have discussed the 
possibility for collaborative research that would draw 
upon the different strengths of the two programs. This 
year represents an important breakthrough with actual 
experiments in progress. 

Joseph Berry, Department of Plant Biology 

Marilyn Estep, Geophysical Laboratory 

1985 

It is well known that purely geological processes, such as volcan- 
ism and plate tectonics, play important roles in the shaping 
of our planet over time. Biological processes of photosynthesis and 
respiration (the two main energy-yielding systems in living 
organisms) also contribute to the evolution of the Earth. Without 
photosynthesis, for example, life on the primitive Earth would have 
ceased. Not only would primitive heterotrophs (nutrient users) 
have depleted their environment of organic compounds, but also 
their metabolism, which would have been fermentive in the absence 
of oxygen, would have increased the level of carbon dioxide 
to a point where even fermentation would not have worked. It was 
only with the increased addition to the atmosphere of oxygen — the 
byproduct of photosynthesis — that heterotrophs were able 
to develop biochemical pathways of respiration, an oxygen-using 
process that allowed them to extract nutrients from the environ- 
ment with much greater efficiency. 

The biochemical processes of photosynthesis and respiration have 
not changed much over billions of years of evolution. It is 
thus possible to examine the metabolisms of now-living organisms 
for information about past events. This is the rationale behind the 
work of Marilyn Estep, a biogeochemist of the Institution's 
Geophysical Laboratory. Estep and fellow staff member Thomas 
Hoering use stable isotopes of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sul- 
fur as natural tracers in understanding biochemical pathways of 
metabolism. Although interest in the use of stable isotopes in plant 
physiology and ecology has been increasing, biologists have not yet 
obtained for this work the instrumentation or experimental 
tradition that exist in the geological sciences. The collaboration be- 
gun this year between Estep and Hoering and Joseph Berry of the 
Department of Plant Biology, with visiting investigator Robert Guy 
from the University of Calgary, is a first attempt to bridge 
this gap. 

In March 1985, with a collection of vacuum pumps, stopcocks, 
glass tubing, and clamps, Estep and Hoering assembled at the De- 
partment of Plant Biology a sample preparation line modeled after 
one they had built earlier at the Geophysical Laboratory. 



48 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

They designed the instrumentation so that experiments could be 
conducted in Stanford but analyses run in Washington using the 
Geophysical Laboratory's mass spectrometers. 

A long-term goal of the group is to better understand the biogeo- 
chemical cycling of oxygen in the biosphere. Specifically, the 
scientists hope to find a quantitative explanation for the observa- 
tion, made many years ago, that the oxygen of the atmosphere has 
relatively more of the heavy isotope of oxygen, 18 0, than 
does water of the oceans. They hope also that the results will pro- 
vide insights into mechanisms of biochemical reactions, and 
provide, as well, new approaches for the study of respiratory pro- 
cesses in plants. 

The initial experiments were designed by Berry, Guy, and Estep 
(who spent several weeks at the Department) to measure 
how the stable isotopes of oxygen are fractionated, or broken down, 
in photosynthesizing organisms. The group compared the isotopic 
composition of oxygen gas produced by spinach chloroplasts with 
the oxygen isotopic composition of the water in which the 
chloroplasts were suspended. They found that the isotopic composi- 
tion of the oxygen entering the atmosphere is essentially 
identical to that of the water. These results confirmed previous 
speculations — drawn from inconclusive experiments on intact or- 
ganisms — that very little fractionation occurs in photosynthetic (ox- 
ygen evolution) reactions. The older observations that atmospheric 
oxygen is enriched with 18 must therefore indicate that atmos- 
pheric processes that consume oxygen preferentially use 16 0, leav- 
ing the heavier isotope behind. This possibility has been examined 
in preliminary studies using yeast. 

Other experiments, now in progress, are designed to measure 
how photorespiration affects oxygen isotopic fractionation. Photo- 
respiration is a companion process to photosynthesis. Like normal 
respiration in both plants and animals, it uses oxygen and 
produces carbon dioxide, but, unlike the normal mechanism of res- 
piration, it results in no energy gain. In fact, it appears to 
be energy wasteful. The process may use up to 30% of the oxygen 
produced by photosynthesis. If it discriminates against the heavier 
isotope of oxygen (as occurs in mechanisms of respiration in 
microorganisms), then such discrimination could have a large effect 
on the composition of the net oxygen produced by plants 
worldwide. 

The Human Embryo Collection 

During the report year, Department of Embryology research 
associate Ronan O'Rahilly and colleagues Fabiola Muller, Grover 
Hutchins, and G. William Moore studied aspects of the nervous sys- 
tem, ectodermal ring, and respiratory and digestive systems of de- 
veloping human embryos. In their work, they used the collection of 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 49 

human embryos gathered in the first part of the century by 
scientists of the Department of Embryology. The collection is now 
housed at the Carnegie Laboratories of Embryology in Davis, Cali- 
fornia. 

Highlights of the year include the development of a computerized 
bubble-sort algorithm in ranking 165 staged embryos of the 
first five weeks in ascending order as some 100 features of the de- 
veloping brain appear. The vast majority of features appear during 
either one or two stages (about two or three days). These results, 
O'Rahilly writes, confirm the Carnegie system of embryonic 
staging. 

O'Rahilly and Miiller compared the greatest length and the 
crown-rump length in 43 staged human embryos. They found that 
the differences between the two lengths are small up to seven 
weeks and basically nonexistent after that. Since the greatest 
length is simpler to measure than the crown-rump length, and be- 
cause its measurement is practicable both earlier and later than 
crown-rump measurements, O'Rahilly and Miiller recommend that 
it be used instead. They point out that George Streeter, a former 
director of the Department of Embryology, had made this 
substitution years ago. 

By means of graphic reconstructions of the general surface 
anatomy of early human embryos, O'Rahilly and Miiller studied an 
important but previously neglected feature — the ectodermal ring — 
in seven embryos of stages 10-16 (three to five weeks). In 
studying the digestive and respiratory systems, they have shown 
to be incorrect some commonly held views such as the supposed 
candorostral separation of trachea from esophagus. In such work, 
they have shown the applicability of valid embryological data to the 
interpretation of congenital anomalies. 

Inquiries concerning the human and comparative collections, as 
well as requests for permission for publication, should be 
addressed to Professor Ronan O'Rahilly, Carnegie Laboratories of 
Embryology, California Primate Research Center, Davis, California 
95616. 



The Physical Sciences 



Spaceborne research — its early achievement and its remarkable 
promise for the near future — increasingly colors research in the 
earth and planetary sciences and in astronomy. Earth-orbiting sat- 
ellites are providing for the first time a well-integrated and world- 
wide mapping of the Earth's physiographic features as well as its 



50 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

gravity and magnetic fields. Lunar and planetary explorations have 
led us to cease thinking of the Earth as a unique object, and recent 
discoveries of orbiting material about other stars suggest that, be- 
fore long, the solar system too will be regarded as one of many. 
Astronomy from space is becoming a growing reality. 

At the same time, vast changes are occurring in that much larger 
part of research in the physical sciences that is still Earth-bound. 
Advancing technology for portable seismic instruments, for exam- 
ple, is raising the possibility of studying specific regions of the in- 
ner Earth in detail. In astronomy, an electronic revolution is fast 
increasing the dimensions of the observable Universe, and there is 
widespread recognition that in order to exploit fully the promise of 
spaceborne observation, a new generation of greater, ground-based 
telescopes is needed. The unprecedented capability for numerical 
simulations, or models, inherent in modern, fast computers, for ex- 
ample, has added a new dimension to the process of discovery. 

But though the powers of the new research tools are indeed re- 
markable, their role remains to reinforce the most critical values of 
the past, not to supersede them. A significant discovery may seem 
a dramatic event — perhaps the acquiring of a final missing piece 
which allows a major new synthesis across many subdisciplines. 
But even such a happening usually represents an outcome of many 
earlier steps by many investigators engaged in the gaining and in- 
terpreting of new evidence. Driving the process remain knowledge, 
perception, judgment, and originality in the mind of the researcher. 

Together then, the two points represent a continuing force in sci- 
ence — the necessity on the one hand to pursue aggressively the 
newest opportunities of the moment, while at the same time build- 
ing upon the values and achievements of the past. It is an outlook 
reflected in the May resolutions of the Institution's trustees, to 
bring to a single site the programs of the Geophysical Laboratory 
and the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) and to pro- 
ceed toward the building of a major (8-meter) telescope at Las 
Campanas. 



Structure, Rotation, and the Question of the Interaction of Galaxies 

Inherent in Hubble's original scheme was the belief 
that a galaxy evolved in splendid isolation, living out 
its life within the Hubble class to which it was born. In 
an amazing turnabout, astronomers now understand 
that a galaxy is a continuously evolving structure, 
which will acquire stars or lose stars through 
gravitational interactions, will acquire gas or lose gas 
through infall or galactic winds, will be actively 
forming stars or be quiescent depending on its most 
recent history, and will look like an elliptical or a spiral 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 51 

depending upon the eyes of the beholder and 
the limiting magnitude of the telescope exposure. 

Vera C. Rubin 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 

July 1985 

Until lately, almost any discussion about how galaxies formed 
began with the idea that every galaxy now seen (with a 
few exceptions), including our own, was formed in a collapsing cloud 
of gas and dust. Where star formation occurred late in the 
collapse — after most of the gas and dust had assumed the shape of a 
rotating disk — we now see a symmetric, spiral galaxy. But 
where the material available for star formation was used up early in 
the collapse, we see an elliptical galaxy, characterized by a 
lack of ordered rotation and active star formation. This picture, 
developed in the early 1960s, until recently seemed adequate to ex- 
plain most of the features observable in galaxies. 

The limitations of this picture became apparent in the last few 
years — a product of the growing power of electronic detectors and 
the increasing use of computer simulation. That galaxies might 
sometimes interact, altering one another's structure, was already 
evident in the various distorted galaxies displayed in the 
1966 Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies, by Carnegie astronomer Halton 
Arp. During the 1970s, computations by Alar Toomre at MIT 
showed that encounters and interactions between galaxies are prob- 
ably more frequent than had been supposed. Toomre and 
others sought and found observational evidence — telltale features 
indicating that galaxy interactions or mergers were now taking 
place or had occurred relatively recently. The same telltale features 
could be reproduced in computer simulations of interacting 
galaxies. The emerging concept — that many of the galaxies we now 
see on the sky are not primordial but are products of interactions 
and collisions of earlier galaxies — is now among the most 
vibrant in astronomy today. 

The Polar-Ring Galaxies. Perhaps the most remarkable insights 
into mergers have come from the polar-ring galaxies, of which 
about two dozen are now known. Each consists of an SO disk galaxy 
seen edge-on, along with a fainter disk of material in orbit 
at right angles to the primary SO. On photographs, a polar-ring 
galaxy looks like a cigar encircled by a ring, but the true 
configuration — two perpendicular disks — was confirmed several 
years ago from measurements of rotation. Since the disks of the ci- 
gar and ring have separate axes of rotation, they must have 
formed in separate events, and the ring galaxies now seen must be 
products of past mergers. Star formation is typically seen 
in the ring, which is made of debris from the lesser galaxy in the 
merger. 



52 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

This year, Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories staff 
members Paul Schechter and Jerome Kristian, with Jacqueline van 
Gorkom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, obtained 
radio observations of three polar-ring galaxies. Working at the 
Very Large Array in New Mexico, they observed the strong emis- 
sions of neutral hydrogen at wavelength 21 centimeters. 

The presence of gas is a prerequisite for star formation. In one 
case, A0136-0801, the investigators found that the hydrogen gas is 
more or less coextensive with the starlight from the polar 
ring. As in two other familiar ring galaxies (II Zwicky 73 and UGC 
7576), this condition indicates that the ring has had ample 
time to form stars. 

The situation is very different in the other two galaxies. In NGC 
4650A, most of the hydrogen appears to have settled into 
the ring, but there is still hydrogen distributed nonsymmetrically at 
the outskirts; star formation is seen only in a narrow part of 
the ring. Evidently, there has not been enough time for the gas to 
settle into the ring and complete its star formation. In MCG 5-7-1, 
the hydrogen is distributed even more nonsymmetrically, and the 
gas extends far beyond the visible image of the galaxy. Enough hy- 
drogen has settled, however, for the narrow ring of stars to 
have formed. This galaxy is distinctive in that it is surrounded by 
stellar debris — another indication of its relative youth and 
of its origin as the product of the merger of two galaxies. 

In MCG 5-7-1, the planes of the ring and the dominant SO are not 
exactly perpendicular to one another. This condition violates the 
expected behavior of gas in an elliptical gravitational field. 
Schechter et al. plan to make further radio observations at high 
resolution in hope of resolving this puzzle. 

Fine Structure in Ellipticals. In a landmark paper published in 
1930, Edwin Hubble analyzed the distribution of luminosity in fif- 
teen elliptical galaxies and derived the simple analytical expression 
for their brightness profiles that now bears his name. Later 
astronomers found appealing the simplicity and universality of Hub- 
ble profiles, and accepted easily the seeming smoothness of 
the light distribution in ellipticals. But in the late 1970s, looking at 
otherwise normal-appearing ellipticals, astronomers began to find 
various fine structures — shells, ripples, and plumes, irregular fea- 
tures made of old stars, inclined gas disks, and lanes of dust. From 
computer simulations, it seemed likely that some of these 
structures were relics of recent collisions and mergers with other 
galaxies. 

DTM astronomers Frangois Schweizer and W. Kent Ford have 
begun a program to find, measure, and catalog such fine 
structures by applying digital filtering techniques to photographic 
images of ellipticals. They have discovered a new, interesting type 
of fine structure — crossed streamers of luminous material, 



NGC4650A 



Total Hi 



40°24' 



o 

d 
m 



4-> 
O 



a> 




10 s 12 h 42 m 00 s 

Right Ascension (1950.0) 

Contours of constant neutral hydrogen surface density, super- 
posed on a photograph of the polar-ring galaxy NGC 4650A. Po- 
lar-ring galaxies have been shown to be products of recent galaxy 
interactions or mergers. The hydrogen data are from radio obser- 
vations by Paul Schechter and Jerome Kristian of the Observato- 
ries, and Jacqueline van Gorkum of the National Radio 
Astronomy Observatory, obtained at the Very Large Array in . 
New Mexico. It can be seen that most of the hydrogen has set- 
tled into a disk shape in the plane of the ring, though there is still 
hydrogen distributed nonsymmetrically at the outskirts. (Photo, 
courtesy of Ken-ichi Wakamatsu, Gifu University, Japan.) 

seen in the relatively isolated Southern elliptical IC 3370. The 
streamers seem to be related geometrically to box-shaped patterns 
of brightness inside the galaxy. While attending a meeting 
at Toulouse in late 1984, Schweizer met Christopher Dupraz of the 






• • 



♦ f 




m * 




*0 



*• 



♦ 



DTM astronomers Frangois Schweizer and W. Kent Ford have found a new, 
interesting fine structure in the outer regions of the elliptical galaxy IC 3370. The 
view at left (10-minute exposure) shows the galaxy's apparently normal inner 
structure. The view at right (90-minute exposure) shows unusual "crossed stream- 
ers" in the outer regions. Schweizer and Ford believe that the streamers are the 
stellar debris of a small disk galaxy that recently fell into the elliptical and was 
disrupted during the subsequent merging. The photographs were taken with the 
4-meter telescope at Cerro Tololo, Chile. 



University of Paris and learned of the latter's numerical simulations 
of the infall of a small spiral galaxy into a large elliptical. 
Dupraz, it turned out, had found strikingly similar crossed struc- 
tures. The episode was a remarkable example of how observational 
and theoretical work can be complementary. Like the ripples and 
tails seen previously, the crossed features are signatures of a past 
merger. 

Meanwhile, Schweizer, Ford, and Patrick Seitzer of Kitt Peak 
National Observatory have initiated a survey of fine structure in 
Northern elliptical and SO galaxies. They are employing state-of- 
the-art CCD detectors, which are much superior to photographic 
plates in signal-to-noise ratios and therefore in their ability to de- 
tect weak structures. The investigators have imaged some sixty 
galaxies to date at the 1-meter telescope at Kitt Peak and the 5- 
meter at Palomar. They are finding fine structures in the SO's simi- 
lar to those in the ellipticals. They note that both the E 
and SO galaxies lack gas and young stars, and they believe that 
this depletion may have occurred in past merger events — a 
product of the super-efficient conversion of gas into stars during 
mergers, along with the subsequent hot galactic winds that push 
away most of the remaining gas. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 55 



Computer Simulations of Galaxy Interactions. DTM postdoctoral 
fellow Kirk Borne has analyzed the interactions between galaxies, 
generally ellipticals, that exist in pairs. His numerical models are 
constrained to fit measurements of light distributions and 
motions inside each galaxy — data that he has obtained in observa- 
tions at Kitt Peak during the last four years. 

In the case of the galaxy pair NGC 4782 and 4783, Borne's 
simulation shows that the two galaxies have approached one anoth- 
er on an unbound trajectory, that they are just past closest 
approach, and that they are undergoing a tidal shock. That shock 
of interaction, he notes, momentarily accelerates the stars, 
causing a transient peak in the range of their velocities. (This mo- 
mentarily high velocity dispersion led to earlier, falsely high deter- 
minations of galaxy mass — a result that seemed to indicate 
the possible presence of a massive invisible halo.) Borne derives 
normal values of mass and mass-to-luminosity ratio from the simu- 
lation, and he concludes that distortions in the galaxies — 
unusual motions and nonsymmetric light distributions — are evi- 
dence that energy is being drawn from the orbit of the pair and 
transferred into the motions of the individual stars. The orbital de- 
cay and merger of the two galaxies is inevitable. 

Borne's similar results with other pairs of ellipticals further 
illustrate the gravitational origin of the observed distortions, and 
add evidence strengthening the idea that mergers have strongly in- 
fluenced the population of galaxies now seen. 

Environmental Effects on Spirals? Seeking evidence that galax- 
ies in densely populated regions are disturbed relatively frequently 
in their lifetimes, Vera Rubin and Kent Ford, with former DTM 
postdoctoral fellow David Burstein (Arizona State University) re- 
cently analyzed rotation curves of many spiral galaxies situated in 
clusters. They found significant differences between the rotational 
characteristics of cluster galaxies and those of isolated, noncluster 
galaxies studied earlier. 

Rotation curves have long been used as indicators of the distribu- 
tion of a galaxy's mass. The often-cited studies of spiral galaxies by 
Rubin and Ford revealed that in all cases, more mass was 
present in a galaxy's outer regions than was indicated by the gal- 
axy's visible image. Now, Rubin and Burstein have classified spiral 
galaxies into three types according to their mass distributions. 
Those having Type I mass distribution exhibit rotation curves that 
rise rapidly near the center of the galaxy and continue to 
rise slowly at large radii. Type I's are thus greatly influenced by 
unseen matter in the outer regions, especially matter in the expan- 
sive halo surrounding the visible galaxy. Those having Type III 
mass distribution have rotation curves that rise slowly at small ra- 



56 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



dii and fall slightly at larger radial distances. (Type II galaxies are 
intermediate.) 

Of the 57 noncluster galaxies studied, 28 are Type I or nearly so; 
of 20 cluster galaxies studied, none are Type I. Rubin and 
Burstein believe that this result is evidence that in the denser clus- 
ter environment, halos may have been stripped or may have been 
prevented from forming fully by the nearby presence of halos sur- 
rounding other cluster galaxies. 

The study has also shown that spirals of each mass-distribution 
type are found in all Hubble classes and in galaxies of all 
luminosities. Sa spirals (enormous bulges and small disks) can have 
rotation curves identical in form to curves of Sc galaxies 
(prominent disks and negligible bulges). Thus, the dark rather than 
the visible matter plays the dominant role in determining galaxy 
dynamics. Of all the parameters that Rubin and Burstein 
examined, only the environment — cluster or noncluster — exhibits 
relation to mass-distribution type. 

Motions in spiral galaxies also have attracted the attention of 
James Fillmore of Caltech, Todd Boroson of the University of 
Michigan, and Alan Dressier of the Mount Wilson and Las Campan- 



750 



500 — 



250 



E- 
i — i 

U 

o 

w 

> 



a # 



« w « *. 

* 



UGC 12591 SO/a 



i i i I i i 



i i ]_ 



J L 







10 20 30 40 

KILOPARSECS FROM NUCLEUS 



50 



Rotational velocities as a function of radius from the center of 
the spiral galaxy UGC 12591. The peak rotational velocity, 505 
kilometers per second, is the highest known. The observations 
were obtained at the Palomar 5-meter telescope by Vera Rubin 
and W. Kent Ford of DTM, with Paul Schechter of the Observa- 
tories. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 57 

as Observatories. Using CCD detectors at the 5-meter Palomar tel- 
escope, they obtained spectra of the inner regions of several 
spirals, where disk and bulge components overlap. From the spec- 
tra, Fillmore, Boroson, and Dressier measured stellar and gaseous 
rotational velocities, as well as velocity dispersion (a measure of the 
random, nonrotational motions). Generally speaking, gaseous disk 
components exhibit rotational motions, and random motions are as- 
sociated with the bulges. The investigators, however, found it 
problematic to deconvolve the motions of the disk and bulge compo- 
nents in the inner regions. They did, however, conclude that 
gaseous rotation is less prominent than expected — apparently a re- 
sult of noncircular motions in gas released by red giant stars in the 
bulge. 

DTM's Rubin and Ford, helped by Paul Schechter in their 
observing at Palomar, have obtained rotation curves of several faint 
galaxies of special interest. In the case of UGC 12591, a fairly 
isolated spiral, the investigators determined a peak rotational veloc- 
ity of about 500 kilometers per second — a value much larger 
than the previously known highest velocity (367 kilometers per sec- 
ond, in NGC 4594). Despite the fast rotation, however, the 
mass, both dark and luminous, within the visible galaxy is only 2 
x 10 12 solar masses, a value not significantly greater than 
that seen in certain other massive spirals. The new observation 
thus appears to define how much dark matter can be contained 
within the visible region of a galaxy. 

How Different Are Ellipticals and Spirals After All? Rubin and 
DTM postdoctoral fellow Deidre Hunter report that faint 
outer features like those recently discovered around elliptical and 
SO galaxies, are also present in at least one spiral. Rubin 
and Hunter have discovered extensive weak outer structure in 
UGC 10205, an Sa galaxy previously studied by Rubin and col- 
leagues for its rotational properties. The galaxy has a prominent lu- 
minous bulge and a disk seen principally in absorption against the 
bulge. Deep red CCD images taken with the 1-meter Kitt 
Peak telescope reveal an extensive nonsymmetric envelope, with 
streamers, condensations, and sharp-edged features. Thus while 
UGC 10205 appears to be a normal Sa from its conventional photo- 
graphic images, it has properties like some ellipticals at faint light 
levels, and it turns into a pathological specimen at the faintest lev- 
els. 

UGC 10205 is a relatively isolated galaxy; its flat or slightly 
falling rotation curve (Type II) is not surprising considering its 
complex outer structure. Rubin and Hunter note that the dynamics 
of the underlying Sa galaxy have not yet been severely distorted, 
and that it is likely that the galaxy has only recently acquired the 
outer material, of which little has yet settled into the disk. 






•'• is "■*" *»1 TH 




Three successively deeper images of the Sa 
galaxy UGC 10205, reproduced from CCD im- 
ages taken with the Kitt Peak 1-meter telescope 
by Vera Rubin and Deidre Hunter of DTM. The 
faintest image shows the galaxy as it appears on 
conventional photos. With additional integration, 
the image develops faint outer structure, sugges- 
tive of the ripples and shells seen about elliptical 
galaxies. On the deepest integrations, complex 
regions of weak streamers, diffuse emission, and 
sharp edges emerge. Thus, this spiral has fea- 
tures not ordinarily observed resembling ellipti- 
cal and even peculiar galaxies. Rubin and Hunter 
suggest that the outer material has been ac- 
quired only recently. 




/P*' 9 



• 



*•• 







• 



Do Galaxy Mergers Make Ellipticals? Carnegie's Alan Dressier 
and George Lake of Bell Laboratories completed a study of 
possible merging galaxies drawn from the Arp atlas of peculiar gal- 
axies. Their aim was to examine whether the Faber-Jackson 
relation, which links velocity dispersion and luminosity in ellipticals, 
also holds for these supposed mergers. They noted that although 
the outer parts of the merging galaxies were chaotic, their inner 
regions may well have reached steady condition, since the time for 
equilibrium to have occurred is relatively short, ~10 8 years; thus, 
evidence of the Faber-Jackson relation in the inner regions would 
be indication that these galaxies have begun evolving into 
ellipticals. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 59 

Dressier and Lake conclude that the inner regions indeed do 
match the Faber-Jackson relation, and that the merging galaxies 
will probably be seen as ellipticals in about 10 9 years. They note 
that certain computer simulations of merging galaxies predict oth- 
erwise, but that such simulations are limited by the relatively few 
stars contained in each computer-galaxy. Thus these simulations 
predict merged galaxies having too little velocity dispersion per 
unit mass, and too much ordered, rotational motion. The 
investigators offer that "Nature is able to make mergers that are 
sufficiently hot, even if present-day simulations cannot." 

The True Shape of Ellipticals. There is no sure way of distin- 
guishing an elliptical's true extent of flattening. A highly-flattened 
oblate shape (a pancake), seen edge-on, looks the same as 
a cigar-shaped, prolate body, for example. Or, a cigar seen end-on 
would look like a sphere. The discovery of the polar-ring 
galaxies at first raised the thought that these were prolate "spin- 
dles," whose disk and ring rotated about the same axis. But this 
was later shown to be incorrect, and to date no prolate- 
shaped galaxies have been positively identified. Theory, however, 
predicts that prolate galaxies can exist, and indeed that there can 
be "triaxial" galaxies — three-dimensional shapes with three unequal 
axes. 

For there to be three unequal axes, or triaxiality, there would 
have to be rotational motion along the apparent minor axis of an 
elliptical. But since the true orientation of any galaxy to the line of 
sight is unknown, a large number of galaxies must be investigated 
and the results treated in a statistical fashion. Even so, it 
is necessary that the directions of the apparent major and minor 
axes be known very accurately; this requires precise measurements 
of light intensity at many places in the galaxy's image. 

Postdoctoral fellow Robert I. Jedrezejewski and Paul Schechter 
at the Observatories have begun such an investigation. They have 
obtained CCD frames of a large sample of ellipticals having the op- 
timum flattening, and they have performed ellipse-fitting using soft- 
ware developed earlier for Jedrezejewski's thesis. One of the main 
surprises was that, of the sample of forty galaxies, most 
show isophotal twists, i.e., their contours of constant light are not 
concentric or even aligned — a result which itself suggests 
that triaxial galaxies may be common. A prime sample of some ten 
galaxies was identified, and spectra of six of these were obtained at 
the 5-meter telescope at Palomar. Very small rotational velocities, 
of order 30 kilometers per second, must be measured, so 
the investigators developed special procedures to eliminate distor- 
tions in the detecting system. Reduction of the spectroscopic data 
is in progress. 



60 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

Galaxy Evolution in Clusters: A New Insight 

The eye-brain combination of an experienced, 

gifted researcher can assimilate the myriads of 

details . . ., can recognize recurrent patterns, 

connect form with process, and leap to 

generalizations that would resist discovery by the 

numerical or analytic methods now available at 

computers. 

George W. Preston, Director 

Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories 

July 1985 

SO galaxies are, in several characteristics, intermediate between 
spiral and elliptical galaxies. Their central bulges are more 
prominent than those of spirals, they have barely distinguishable 
disks, and there is relatively little gas available to sustain star for- 
mation. They resemble ellipticals in visual appearance but 
they have greater ordered, rotational motion. Astronomers have 
long asked whether SO's have in some manner evolved from one of 
the other types. During the last decade, for example, a widespread 
notion has been that SO's in rich clusters of galaxies are 
produced by the stripping of gas from the disks of ordinary spirals. 

In an essay prepared for publication in the forthcoming 
Annual Report of the Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observato- 
ries, staff member Alan Dressier offers fresh thoughts on 
this question. He first notes that in 1980, he himself put forth evi- 
dence against this hypothesis; at that time, he compared 
bulge size and luminosity of SO's and spirals, and he concluded that 
stripping a typical population of spirals would yield many 
small-bulge SO's, not SO's having the large bulges actually seen. 

Since 1980, Dressier writes, evidence has been accumulating that 
spirals in rich clusters are indeed subject to some process 
that reduces their supply of disk gas, and he cites a forthcoming 
article where Riccardo Giovanelli and Martha Haynes, both of Cor- 
nell, report that a significant number of spirals are found 
to be deficient in neutral hydrogen gas. Where the galaxy popula- 
tion is dense, the spirals are generally more depleted in gas. Giova- 
nelli and Haynes, however, were unable to correlate gas 
deficiency with a galaxy's velocity within its cluster (as shown by its 
radial velocity, measured toward or away from us). Since 
stripping by ram pressure — that exerted on disk gas when it col- 
lides with hot intracluster gas at high speed — should strongly de- 
pend on velocity, the data discouraged the idea that such 
stripping was the mechanism of gas depletion. 

Now, Dressier has reexamined the Giovanelli-Haynes data and 
found two correlations suggesting that ram-pressure stripping may • 
indeed be at work. First, he shows that gas deficiency correlates 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 61 

with galaxy type — i.e., that Sa and Sb spirals are much more likely 
to be gas-deficient than types Sc, Sd, or Irr I. The pattern 
is seen among galaxies in both inner and outer regions of clusters, 
and in clusters having many depleted galaxies and in clusters hav- 
ing few. Dressier investigates, and rejects, the possibility that the 
pattern is caused by selection effects, where Sa's and Sb's 
are more common in denser regions. The apparent correlation with 
galaxy type, Dressier notes, raises an earlier idea, proposed by an- 
other investigator, that gas is removed easily from Sa's and Sb's 
where gas pressure and rate of replenishment by stellar evolution 
are lowest. The idea that SO galaxies may evolve from gas- 
deficient Sa's is consistent with Dressier' s earlier finding that there 
are few SO's with small bulges. 

Dressier also uses the Giovanelli-Haynes data to make a still- 
different case for ram-pressure stripping. Although gas deficiency 
and radial velocity could not be correlated earlier, the picture 
changes if projection effects and the shape of the orbits are more 
fully considered. Dressier attempted to determine whether orbits 
were circular or noncircular by examining the dispersal, or scatter, 
in radial velocity among galaxies at a given apparent radius from a 
cluster's center, and how this dispersal changes with radius. 

Dressier showed that the dispersal in velocity decreases with in- 
creasing radius — evidence of noncircular orbits — in the case of gas- 
poor spirals. Such orbits brought these galaxies, therefore, 
occasionally close to the cluster core, where the dense environment 
is conducive to ram stripping. On the other hand, he showed that 
dispersal in velocity among gas-rich galaxies increases with radius, 
so that these galaxies were on circular orbits. These spirals, thus, 
had never passed close to the core, had not been subject to ram 
stripping, and had therefore retained their gas. 

It is not yet clear, Dressier writes, whether his correlation 
between galaxy type and gas deficiency is the result of a more fun- 
damental correlation between type and orbital characteristic; one 
difficulty is that there are too few gas-poor, Sc and Sd spirals avail- 
able for study. It appears, however, that two conditions must be 
met for a spiral to be stripped: (1) it must be on a plunging orbit 
that takes it close to cluster center, and (2) it must be a 
type Sa or Sb, which are more easily stripped than Sc or Sd types. 
Although still other questions remain unanswered, Dressier 
concludes: "It is becoming increasingly clear that spirals are subject 
to environmental effects that change their gas contents and 
star-formation histories. ... As for over ten years, the leading can- 
didate remains ram-pressure stripping by a hot intracluster 
medium." 

Galaxies at Very Large Redshifts 

Carnegie fellow Rogier Windhorst at the Observatories has 



62 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

collaborated with former DTM fellow David Koo, now at the Space 
Telescope Science Institute, and several other investigators, in a 
series of observations of very distant objects, seen at the limiting 
faintness of today's most advanced optical systems. The ability to 
observe at very faint magnitudes allows cosmologists in effect to 
look backward in time; objects seen at large redshifts are seen as 
they were much earlier in the Universe, and provide data for pro- 
jecting even farther backward to earliest epochs. 

It is fundamentally important to cosmologists to learn when in 
the early Universe galaxies and radio sources began to form. Im- 
portant clues lie in present-day observations of radio sources at 
substantial redshifts, which allow analyses indicating the probable 
maximum distance, or time era, of such objects. Two conflicting 
views have emerged on this point. One group of investigators, 
working from luminosities and redshift distributions of observable 
radio sources, predicts that there should be a substantial 
fraction of radio sources at the extremely large redshift of z = 5. 
Others have argued mainly from optical data and spectroscopy, that 
the brighter radio sources need extend only to about z = 2.5. (A z 
value of 2.5 corresponds to an age of about 3.5 billion years, 
roughly a fifth the age of the Universe, for reasonable values of the 
cosmological parameters, H = 50 and q = 0.1.) Windhorst, who 
favors the lower value of z, notes that the triggering of the first 
radio source in a galaxy may have occurred some time after initial 
star formation. 

Windhorst, with various collaborators including Koo, has in 
recent years conducted ultradeep radio surveys with the Wester- 
bork Synthesis Radio Telescope in The Netherlands, and with the 
Very Large Array radio telescope, New Mexico. About half of the 
radio sources have been identified optically, and these tend to fall 
into two distinct categories. The galaxies having the brighter radio 
sources tend to resemble bright, giant ellipticals with rather large 
redshifts z *s 0.8. The fainter ("microJansky") radio sources largely 
form a different class of blue galaxies, having lower optical 
luminosity and intermediate redshift z ^ 0.5, and they resemble 
interacting or merging galaxies in form. 

Windhorst and Koo selected a subsample of several dozen faint 
radio sources not previously identified optically. Working at the 5- 
meter Palomar telescope equipped with the Four-shooter CCD, 
they attempted ultradeep identifications. (The Four-shooter is high- 
ly efficient for this work, because a single exposure covers 
an area of 9 x 9 minutes in one exposure and can thereby capture 
perhaps a dozen microJansky sources.) Windhorst and Koo easily 
identified the eleven microJansky sources in the subsample to the 
faintest optical magnitude of 24.5. Of the 52 brighter radio 
sources, however, they were able to identify only 43, though one of 
them was identified at the extremely faint magnitude 25.3. 

The identification of all the microJansky sources suggests that the 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 63 

associated blue, radio-galaxy class need not extend to redshifts 
very far beyond z = 1; this is a considerably lower value than pre- 
viously proposed. Meanwhile, the inability to identify all the giant 
red elliptical radio galaxies suggests that these objects may extend 
to much greater redshifts. Ultimately, such questions must 
be answered by still fainter identifications and, especially, by spec- 
troscopy. 

Toward a Cosmological Distance Scale 

Wide disagreement over extragalactic distances remains a central 
matter in astronomy. Early in this century, scientists established 
that the period of pulsation of a Cepheid variable star was a direct 
indicator of the star's intrinsic luminosity. Its distance from us 
could then be determined by comparing intrinsic and apparent lumi- 
nosity (correcting for extinction of light in intervening space). 
Cepheids became a key yardstick for determining distances to near- 
by galaxies, and they remain important for testing and calibrating 
other yardsticks that might then be extended to more-distant gal- 
axies. 

Seeking fresh refinement of the Cepheid period-luminosity 
relation, postdoctoral fellow Wendy Freedman at the Observatories 
has obtained CCD photometry for known Cepheids in the 
nearby galaxy M33. The use of linear, CCD detectors allowed pho- 
tometry at fairly long wavelengths, where the effects of reddening 
and metallicity are lower than in the wavelength region where Ce- 
pheid studies have traditionally been carried out. 

Freedman's M33 Cepheid data, plotted with measurements of 
Cepheids in the close-by Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), exhibited 
very narrow scatter. Consistency was especially strong at 
the longer wavelength / = 0.9 |xm. The data at four wavelengths 
yielded an estimate of extinction of A v = 0.6 mag, and a 
preliminary true distance modulus (intrinsic minus apparent magni- 
tude) of 24.1. This value is lower than values determined 
recently by other investigators, perhaps because of different ap- 
proaches to internal absorption and LMC modulus. The program is 
now being applied to known Cepheids in other nearby galaxies. 

Meanwhile, Allan Sandage has continued his studies of the color- 
magnitude diagrams of nearby galaxies containing Cepheids, with 
the goal of refining and calibrating a distance scale based 
on a galaxy's brightest red and blue stars. With George Carlson 
(Citrus College), Sandage has found and measured Cepheids in the 
galaxies Sextans B and WLM, yielding distances to these 
two galaxies and leading to values of intrinsic magnitude for the 
three brightest red and blue stars in each. In these two 
galaxies and in eleven other calibrating galaxies, the investigators 
explored relations between brightest-star magnitude and parent 
galaxy intrinsic luminosity. 



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Postdoctoral fellow Wendy Freedman has obtained CCD photometry of Ce- 
pheids in the nearby galaxy M33. Here, period of Cepheid pulsation is plotted 
against apparent magnitude at four wavelengths; M33 stars are encircled, stars of 
the close-by Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are not circled. Vertical scale is ad- 
justed to bring M33 and LMC plots to approximate superposition. The derived 
distance modulus (intrinsic minus apparent magnitude) of M33 minus that of LMC 
is shown at the bottom right of each plot. (In each galaxy, all Cepheids are at 
essentially the same distance.) The differential values as a function of increasing 
wavelength allow an estimate of the total extinction in intervening space to be 
obtained; the traditional Cepheid period-luminosity relation can now be applied 
with a more accurate correction for light extinction. 



The luminosity of a galaxy's brightest stars holds promise as a 
possible yardstick out to substantial distances (100 Mpc), especially 
when observations become possible using the Hubble Space 
Telescope. The galaxies that are suitable for this work with the- 
Space Telescope are fairly rare, constituting only about 15% of any 
complete sample at a given magnitude. Required are star- 
producing galaxies having disks of low surface brightness, which 
allow measurement of the embedded stars to magnitude 25 
in the visual wavelengths and 27 in the blue. Sandage and Observa- 
tories' photographer John Bedke, now at the Space Telescope 
Science Institute, have prepared photographic atlases containing 
157 galaxies deemed suitable for this future work. The Space Tele- 
scope observations may settle the long-standing disagreement over 
cosmological distances. 

Still another approach to the distance scale is seen in the current 
supernova search organized by Sandage and colleague Gustav Tam- 
mann of the University of Basel. Type I supernovae have 
been used as standard candles for determining the distances to oth- 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 65 

er galaxies. The purpose of the present investigation is to 
determine how widely they can be found. Ninety search fields have 
been selected, each rich in elliptical galaxies, which are known to 
be slow supernova producers but which absorb supernova light only 
minimally. The search is being conducted at the 1-meter Swope tel- 
escope at Las Campanas by students from the Astronomical 
Institute of the University of Basel. During the year, they discov- 
ered a total of five new supernovae; a conclusion as to the overall 
frequency of their occurrence has not yet been reached. The effort 
is funded by the Swiss and the U.S. National Science Foundations. 

The Heavy-Element Contents of Stars: Further Keys to Galaxy 
Evolution 

The urge to understand galaxy formation and evolution, seen in 
the various investigations of galaxy interactions and mergers, is 
also evident in ventures by those astronomers who study the stars 
of our own Milky Way Galaxy and its close neighbors. Varied cur- 
rent work on heavy-element, or "metallicity," gradients within the 
Galaxy, for example, is testing the traditional picture that 
the Milky Way formed as the product of a collapsing cloud. 

Indeed, these ventures in stellar astronomy are pointing toward 
the same questions being asked in extragalactic studies. To what 
extent are the galaxies seen today, including the Milky Way, prod- 
ucts of (1) collapsing primordial clouds or (2) interactions among 
earlier galaxies? (It now seems clear that both processes have been 
at work, but the details of neither process are well agreed.) 
As evidence steadily accumulates, we are witnessing how science 
seeks and uses new findings — sometimes seemingly contradictory in 
their directions — gradually to tighten existing theories until 
eventually a new synthesis emerges to refine or perhaps replace the 
old. 

A Search for the Earliest Stars. In the generally accepted picture 
of how the chemical elements formed, the Big Bang produced only 
hydrogen and helium (and traces of lithium). The heavier 
elements were formed later, by nuclear fusion in the centers of 
stars, which eventually exploded as supernovae, thereby injecting 
heavy-element-enriched material into interstellar space. Later- 
forming stars should thus contain some of this enriched material 
and should now exhibit higher heavy-element concentrations than 
would the earliest stars, which presumably formed from nearly pri- 
mordial material very low in the heavy elements. 

Massive stars evolve rapidly to the final supernova stage, and 
therefore contribute heavily to heavy-element enrichment. Stars 
less massive than 0.8 Suns, on the other hand, evolve so 
slowly that they can survive from the earliest epoch of star forma- 
tion to the present day. If such stars were among the early 



66 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

generations of stars, then some of them — still exhibiting nearly pri- 
mordial metal abundance — should be observable today. 

The place to search for these low-metal stars is in the halo of our 
Galaxy, whose stars are primarily old ones having heavy-element 
abundances only 1-10% that of the Sun. (In the scale usually used, 
the element iron represents the heavy elements; such stars 
have values of [Fe/H] between -2.0 and - 1.0.) In the simplest 
model for supernova enrichment in this range, low-metal stars 
should be rare: of 100 stars having [Fe/H] < -2.0, only ten are 
expected with [Fe/H] < -3.0, and only one with [Fe/H] < -4.0. 

The questions remained: could stars having these metal 
abundances be observed in the halo of our Galaxy, and would they 
be found in the appropriate distribution? Conceivably, low-mass 
stars were not among the early generations, or perhaps the earliest 
stars were formed ahead of the Galaxy and are scattered through 
intergalactic space. 

To test these questions, Stephen Shectman, George Preston, and 
Timothy Beers of the Observatories several years ago launched a 
search for stars of very low metal abundance. Their first 
step was at the 61-cm Curtis Schmidt telescope at Cerro Tololo 
Inter-American Observatory, Chile, where they obtained some 
eighty survey plates, each covering a sky area of 5 x 5 degrees; 
the plates were obtained through an objective prism and 
an interference filter designed to admit principally the wavelengths 
of the H and K lines of Ca II (3968 A and 3933 A)— the strongest 
absorption lines in the spectra of normal stars. Each plate 
contained thousands of spectra of stars; most exhibited the strong 
H and K absorption typical of normal stars. But a few stars per 
plate exhibited weak or absent H and K. These became the low- 
metal-abundance candidates, and about 1800 were found on the 
eighty plates. 

Next, using spectrographs on the Las Campanas 2.5-meter du 
Pont telescope and the Palomar 5-meter Hale telescope, the investi- 
gators obtained detailed, higher-resolution spectra individually from 
many of the candidates. The typical spectrum of a low-metal 
star exhibits only the Balmer lines of hydrogen, the weak calcium H 
and K, and perhaps the G band, a molecular feature caused 
by CH. Shectman et al. measured the line strengths by comparing 
the flux in a wavelength interval centered on each line to 
the flux in nearby continuum intervals. The hydrogen line strength 
increases with temperature and provides a measure of the 
star's surface temperature. The strength of the calcium K line, 
which decreases with temperature, has been calibrated from stars 
of known metallicity in globular clusters and in the field. 
Using this calibration, the investigators have analyzed 450 spectra 
of metal-poor candidates. The result is their present sample of 134 
stars having [Fe/H] < -2.0. 

The investigators then obtained broad-band photometry of the 



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Spectra of three candidate low-metal-abundance stars, from the search by Ste- 
phen Shectman, George Preston, and Timothy Beers of the Observatories for 
stars of low metallicity. The star at the top is marginally metal poor at [Fe/H] = 
-2.0, as indicated by the moderately strong absorption of the K line at 3933 A. 
The middle spectrum exhibits less-pronounced K-line absorption and is therefore 
lower in metal abundance. The star at the bottom has the weakest K-line absorp- 
tion, and thus has heavy-element abundance probably 10,000 times lower than the 
Sun. The lower star may therefore be a primordial star remaining from the early 
population of our Galaxy. 



4400 



metal-poor sample using the 1-meter Swope telescope at Las Cam- 
panas, thereby discriminating among various classes of stars — 
unevolved dwarfs, evolved giants, and still-more-evolved giants — 
the same classes seen in metal-poor globular clusters. 

Shectman notes that five stars in the sample of 134 appear to 
exhibit heavy-metal abundances of [Fe/H] < -3.5. Only one star of 
lower abundance has ever been discovered. Although such 
stars are rare and difficult to find, he concludes, they seem to occur 
with sufficient frequency to be consistent with simple models of 
chemical enrichment during the early formation of the Galaxy. The 
numbers predict that the numbers of stars produced increase in di- 
rect proportion to their metallicity. A strong statement about 
agreement between theory and observation will require enlarge- 
ment of the sample of metal-poor stars. 

Chemical Evolution in the Small Magellanic Cloud. The Small 
Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is a close-by irregular galaxy, a satellite to 
the Milky Way. To learn about its chemical evolution, DTM 



68 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



postdoctoral fellow Linda Stryker and Horace Smith of Michigan 
State University, a former fellow at the Observatories, last year 
used the 2.5-meter du Pont telescope at Las Campanas to study 
compositions of three types of pulsational variable SMC stars, each 
formed in a different epoch of the galaxy's evolution. They 
observed the old (>10 10 years) RR Lyrae, the intermediate-age 
anomalous Cepheids, and the young (0.5 x 10 3 years) Wesselink- 
Shuttle worth variables. From the present-day compositions of 
these stars, Stryker and Smith found that chemical processes in the 
SMC have proceeded much more slowly and shallowly than 
in our Galaxy; only in recent times (< 2 x 10 9 years) has the SMC 
reached the level of enrichment in elements heavier than 
hydrogen and helium that the disk of our Galaxy attained 10 x 10 9 
years ago. 
Stryker, with Jeremy Mould of Caltech and Gary Da Costa of 



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DTM postdoctoral fellow Linda Stryker and Horace Smith of 
Michigan State have studied chemical evolution in the Small Ma- 
gellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way. Plotted here 
are the heavy-element abundances, shown as the ratio [Fe/H], 
and ages of several types of SMC stars (triangles, circles). The 
bar at left represents the youngest SMC objects. The squares are 
stars of our own Galaxy. Notice that in both the SMC and our 
Galaxy, younger stars are higher in Fe than old ones. Chemical 
evolution toward higher heavy-element content has clearly pro- 
ceeded less fully in the SMC than in our Galaxy; only in the last 2 
x 10 9 years has SMC heavy-element content reached the level of 
our Galaxy 10 x 10 9 years ago. (The shaded box represents glob- 
ular clusters of our Galaxy.) 




14 



16 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 69 

Yale, is also studying NGC 121, the oldest known globular cluster 
of the SMC. The observations, obtained at the 4-meter Cerro Tolo- 
lo telescope in Chile, further support the hypothesis that chemical 
enrichment occurred in the SMC relatively recently. Meanwhile, 
another group of investigators, including Nicholas Suntzeff of the 
Observatories and John Graham, then of Cerro Tololo Inter- Ameri- 
can Observatory, began a study of the SMC halo population. 
Graham's plates from an earlier study of RR Lyrae stars in the 
halo, along with newly obtained plates, were used to identify star 
motions and weed out foreground stars of our Galaxy. Spectra of 
about twelve red giants of the SMC halo were then obtained, and 
direct CCD frames were taken of the region near NGC 121. 
Suntzeff, Graham, and colleagues concluded that the SMC halo 
stars are somewhat poorer in heavy elements than the average halo 
stars of our Galaxy. 

Evidence from Globular Clusters of Our Galaxy. The globular 
clusters of our Galaxy are composed of older stars, which formed 
early in the collapse and are therefore low in heavy-element con- 
tent. Many of the globulars are to be found in the halo, 
where their orbital motions fail to provide a systematic rotational 
pattern. How their composition varies with orbital distance from 
Galaxy Center has been studied by Leonard Searle of the 
Observatories and Robert Zinn of Yale University, seeking insights 
into the early chemical history of the Galaxy. 

In the current year, Nicholas Suntzeff, in collaboration with 
Edward Olszewski of Steward Observatory and Peter Stetson (for- 
merly a Carnegie fellow and now of the Dominion Astrophysical 
Observatory), has obtained spectra of red giant stars in AM-1, the 
most distant globular associated with our Galaxy. The measured 
heavy-element abundances support the absence of a metallicity gra- 
dient in extreme outer regions of the Galaxy. (The investigators 
also note that the low orbital velocity of AM-1 fails to provide evi- 
dence of the presence of substantial dark mass in the outer 
regions.) The observations were made with the Reticon spectrome- 
ter at the du Pont telescope, Las Campanas. 

Rotation vs. Heavy -Element Content. Allan Sandage and re- 
search assistant Gary Fouts (now of the Space Telescope Science 
Institute), completed radial velocity measurements of a large popu- 
lation of high-proper-motion stars. During some three years, they 
obtained over 2200 measurements with the Mount Wilson 
2.5-meter telescope using the coude spectrograph and the Reticon 
spectrometer. Space motions have been computed from the 
Doppler-shift measurements and the proper motion of each star, 
and correlations were developed between the rotational velocities 
about Galaxy Center and the metal abundances previously 
determined by color photometry. 



70 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 




S. Eric Persson and Belva Campbell of the Observatories are studying the 
Young Stellar Object (YSO) GL490. In this remarkable view of the region, the 
apparent GL490 central object is marked. To its lower right is seen a vast region 
of nebulosity — apparently a cone of emission representing a powerful outflow 
moving away from the center at an angle toward the observer. (A similar outflow 
on the opposite side of the central object is obscured by the interior of the molec- 
ular cloud and by a large and dusty molecular disk, evidence for which is found in 
radio observations and in the several large and prominent dark areas near the 
central object.) A bowed structure seen in the cone could be emission from the 
shock-heated edge of a clump of gas locally blocking the outflow or light reflected 
from the central source. The image was obtained in the near-infrared (8200 A) with 
the Four-shooter CCD system at the Palomar 5-meter telescope. Seen in the field 
are numerous nearby stars, including several seen at the edge of the YSO image. 
(The scaled drawing at top left indicates location of central object at arrow, the 
cone of outflow, the bowed structure therein, and the molecular disk.) 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 71 

The principal result is that the rotational velocity of the stars 
about Galaxy Center is a strong and monotonic function of the met- 
al abundance. The lower the heavy-element content in a given star, 
the lower the star's rotational velocity. The result is consistent 
with the collapse model of formation of the Galaxy, where a gas 
cloud's spin increases as the collapse proceeds so that stars forming 
late rotate faster and have higher metallicities; this result 
differs from results in studying globular clusters in M31, where 
rotational velocity and heavy-element abundance exhibit no 
correlation. 

The Process of Star Formation 

Stars are formed of the gas and dust in a galaxy or pre-galaxy, 
generally in regions of higher-than-average mass density. 
Although the actual birth of a star cannot be observed optically 
inside the clouds of molecular hydrogen where birth occurs, 
improved methods for observing in the infrared are starting to give 
significant insights. In addition, observations in the optical 
using CCD's are becoming feasible in regions where young stars are 
emerging from their inner-cloud birthplaces. 

A Prototypical Young Stellar Object (YSO). The advent of CCD 
spectrometers and direct cameras has opened the way for 
accelerated study of massive, new stars emerging from their natal 
clouds. Last year, Observatories staff member S. Eric Persson re- 
ported spectroscopic observations of the prototypical Young Stellar 
Object (YSO) GL490 — a bright infrared source exhibiting an 
extended and powerful, bipolar outflow of molecular gas (Year Book 
83, pp. 60-63). Despite its complexity, the source region provides 
considerable insight into the processes of star formation in general. 

This year, Persson and postdoctoral fellow Belva Campbell 
began a study of the GL490 region in the optical and near-infrared 
regions, employing the Four-shooter CCD camera system 
at the 5-meter Palomar telescope. The system gives high sensitivi- 
ty, a large field of view (9 minutes square), and an image 
scale allowing precise positioning. 

The investigators obtained images in several wavebands. Pre- 
sented on the opposite page is a deep exposure showing the struc- 
ture around the central source. Described in the legend are the sig- 
nificant features — the apparent central source , a large conical out- 
flow, a barlike structure crossing the outflow, and several 
large dark areas surrounding the central source. 

The dark areas appear to be clouds of intervening material near 
the source itself. These correspond well to peaks in radio 
emission, which reveal the existence of a massive molecular disk 
slowly rotating around the core. The disk obscures emissions in the 
optical: indeed, the investigators believe that the visible central 



72 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



source is in reality an image in scattered light, which is 
emerging from within the disk via a tunnel. The material pushing 
on the molecular cloud to create the conical outflow is escaping 
through the same tunnel. Outflow in the opposite direction (the out- 
flow is bipolar) is obscured. 

Contours of equal brightness (see figure, below) reveal the 
structure of the apparent central source. Shown on the same draw- 
ing is the location of the radio continuum source, from radio 
observations at the Very Large Array in New Mexico. Presumably 
this represents the actual position of the YSO core, whose direct 
emissions in the optical and near-infrared are obscured by the disk. 
Recent theoretical work on outflows suggests that the inner 
regions of the rotating disk are magnetized and partly ionized by 
the core source, and that the outflow may occur along helical lines 
of magnetic field. The flow pattern close to the source and 
along its exit tunnel may thus govern the apparent image structure. 
Study at higher resolution from the Space Telescope may 
delineate this pattern. 

In another investigation, Persson and Peter McGregor studied 
the red spectrum of I Zwicky 1, an active galaxy that has strong 




180 
PIXELS 



At left, structure of the GL490 central object; contours of equal brightness be- 
gin at 90% of the peak value and drop in 10% increments to sky level. The con- 
tours are slightly elongated roughly at right angle to the direction of the 
molecular outflow; systematic rotation of the contours can be noted. A cross 
marks the position of the radio continuum source, recently measured by Belva 
Campbell with the Very Large Array radio telescope, New Mexico. The investi- 
gators believe that the visual source is being seen in scattered light from within 
the molecular disk where the YSO is itself embedded (at the radio source posi- 
tion). Geometrical considerations suggest that the image emerges through a trum- 
pet-shaped tunnel, and it is through this same opening that the large-scale 
molecular outflow is powered. 

At right, a corresponding image of a star from the same frame. The YSO struc- 
ture is considerably more extended and wider than the star's. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 73 

Fe II lines. The observations were motivated by the finding that 
the high-density physical conditions deduced for the envelopes of 
YSO's, such as GL490, resembled those inferred for the broad-line 
regions of quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies. It was found that in sev- 
eral respects the spectrum of the active nucleus of the galaxy was 
similar to that of GL490, in that several emission lines and blends 
were common to both. Reasoning that the spectral signatures may 
indicate not only similar physical conditions but also a common bas- 
ic geometry for the emission line gas, the investigators speculated 
that a single "disk plus jet" model may appropriately describe both 
systems, which differ in energy output and geometrical scale by 
eight orders of magnitude. Preston observes that it should be fasci- 
nating to see if subsequent studies will bear out this idea. Further 
observations of a larger sample of galaxies do indeed point in this 
direction. 

Star Formation in Irregulars. Deidre Hunter, with Jay Gallagher 
of Kitt Peak National Observatory and others, is investigating star 
formation in irregular galaxies. The investigators have explored 
stellar content by near-infrared photometry and imaging (which is 
sensitive to older stars) and by ultraviolet spectroscopy (which pri- 
marily reveals the massive young stars). Both old and young stars 
seem fairly normal in the irregulars, suggesting that the basic star- 
formation processes cannot be drastically different from those in 
typical spirals. Still, the irregulars do not have the dark 
dust nebulae or strong CO fluxes commonly associated with star 
formation in spirals. Hunter and colleagues are using infrared ob- 
servations from the IRAS satellite and from the Kuiper Airborne 
Observatory to explore the nature of dust in irregulars; the dust 
temperatures (from colors) are not very different from those in spi- 
rals, so that although the dust content is low, it is sufficient 
for normal star formation. 

Advanced Theoretical Studies of Star Formation. Spectroscopic 
observations at radio wavelengths, revealing Doppler shifts, are 
useful in mapping the motions inside interstellar clouds, where star 
formation may be occurring. In several cases, there is indication 
that the inner cloud core rotates in a sense opposite to that of the 
cloud outer envelope. One explanation for this phenomenon has 
been that magnetic fields have rotationally spun down the cloud so 
vigorously that the cloud's rotational momentum in the inner region 
has temporarily overshot the equilibrium point. If so, the 
retrograde rotation could provide evidence for studying the 
strength of the magnetic field. 

In theoretical work, however, DTM's Alan Boss has found that 
such motions could be attributable to a nonmagnetic cloud collapse, 
leading to formation of a binary protostellar system. This 
interpretation is supported by recent IRAS satellite observations 



74 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

in the infrared, which detected a protostellar object in the 
core of a rotating molecular cloud. (If magnetic fields caused the 
retrograde rotation, it is hard to see how the cloud could 
have collapsed to form the star.) Boss's model can be tested obser- 
vationally by searching for a second embedded protostar in 
the same cloud core. 

In studying the question of fragmentation in collapsing clouds 
during star formation, Boss has conducted various collapse simula- 
tions. The programs are designed to ask whether or not 
dense clouds fragment into single or double protostar systems be- 
fore reaching a condition where further fragmentation is unlikely. 
Boss finds that as the mass of clouds is reduced through successive 
fragmentations, and as protostellar clouds become dense enough to 
begin heating, thermal effects begin to dominate events. Thermal 
pressure opposes fragmentation, and at a small enough mass, the 
protostar no longer fragments but instead forms a single 
star. Boss hopes to learn how small a star can be that is formed in 
cloud fragmentation. 

Solar-Stellar Physics 

The study of other stars yields understanding of our Sun, and 
vice versa. The Mount Wilson 1.5-meter telescope continues to be 
devoted to nightly measurements of chromospheric activity in solar- 
like stars. About a third of the observing time is now devoted to 
the long-term monitoring of selected stars, including some used by 
Olin C. Wilson to study long-term variations analogous to 
the 11-year sunspot cycle. Later investigators detected short-term 
variations in chromospheric activity attributable to rotation in many 
stars. Research associate Douglas Duncan of the Observatories 
leads the present effort, supported actively by Arthur Vaughan, a 
former staff member now of the Perkin-Elmer Corporation. 

The venture is bringing a host of interesting findings. Robert 
Noyes of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Nigel 
Weiss of the University of Cambridge, and Vaughan recently pub- 
lished plausible evidence that among stars of a given spectral type 
(or mass), the period of the activity cycle is nearly proportional to 
the period of rotation. Further, for all stars regardless of type, the 
period of the cycle increases with increasing Rossby Number (the 
ratio of rotational period to the theoretically computed convective 
overturn time). These empirical results provide a basis for testing 
theoretical work, and they raise the possibility of studying (with so- 
lar-wind and geological data) how solar activity and rotation 
have varied in the geological past. 

Findings of multiple periodicity in certain stars (i.e., different 
rates of rotation at different stellar latitudes), described in Year 
Book 83 (p. 65), have been expanded; measurements of chromo- 
spheric emission of Sun-like Hyades cluster stars have been corre- 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 75 

lated with broad-band photometry for the same stars obtained at 
Lowell Observatory, in order to deduce the number and size of ac- 
tivity complexes. Duncan is using extensive data on the strength of 
chromospheric H and K emission to construct the relations 
between these emissions and stellar age, and with David Soderblum 
of Space Telescope Science Institute, he is using the resulting 
relation to infer age distribution of stars in the solar neighborhood. 
Preliminary indication is that the star-formation rate has been uni- 
form except that a surplus of young stars (age < 1 billion years) is 
emerging. This surplus may help explain the so-called Vaughan- 
Preston gap — a deficiency of stars of intermediate age in 
comparison to young and old stars. 

Instruments for Discovery 

We live in an era in which streams of numbers 
flow from telescopes to signal the capture of photons 
in various formats — digital images of small 
patches of sky, one- or two-dimensional spectra, or 
time-series of flux signals from variable celestial 
sources. A digital electronic revolution is in 
progress; there is no question of its power, and no 
turning back. . . . 

George W. Preston, Director 

Mount Wilson and Las Campanas 
Observatories 

July 1985 

The electronic revolution in astronomy arose with the develop- 
ment of electronic image tubes for use at major telescopes in the 
1950s and 1960s. A central figure in the work was astronomer W. 
Kent Ford of Carnegie Institution's Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism (DTM). In 1965, DTM's director, Merle Tuve, believing 
that Carnegie scientists should lead not only in developing 
the tubes but also in employing them in forefront research, brought 
astronomer Vera Rubin to DTM to share in this effort. Today, the 
names of Ford and Rubin are esteemed throughout the profession 
for their leading research on spiral galaxy rotation, primarily using 
the Carnegie image tubes. Auxiliary detectors — successors to the 
Carnegie tubes — are now used in nearly all significant programs in 
optical astronomy, vastly enhancing the observing power of major 
telescopes. 

During the past year, two instruments of special significance 
were installed at Las Campanas. Both are detectors capable of im- 
aging in two dimensions; both feature charge-coupled devices 
(CCD's) — solid-state photodiode sensors. Both were designed and 
constructed by Stephen Shectman, Christopher Price, and Ian 
Thompson of the Observatories. 

The first instrument, informally called the 2D-Frutti, is a photon- 



76 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

counter whose CCD is used to locate scintillations caused by 
individual photons passed through a high-gain image intensifier 
chain. It replaces the Reticon spectrometer, which had been in use 
at the Cassegrain focus of the du Pont telescope since 1978. 
Whereas the Reticons located scintillations in only one dimension, 
the 2D functions in two dimensions — corresponding to wavelength 
and position along the spectrograph entrance slit, which can be up 
to 5 arcminutes long. 

The first stage of the image intensifier chain is a Carnegie image 
tube — a magnetically focused intensifier with excellent resolution 
and blue response. A transfer lens couples the output of 
the Carnegie tube to an electrostatic intensifier and a microchannel- 
plate intensifier, which provide most of the gain in the system. The 
CCD is coupled to the last stage of intensification through a 
fiber-optic minifier. 

The CCD format is 380 x 244 diodes; the entire array can be 
inspected every 8 milliseconds. The output of each diode is digi- 
tized, and the digital information is used to extract a precise mea- 
sure of the location of each scintillation. The position of a 
scintillation, which is typically spread over two or three diodes in 
both horizontal and vertical directions, is measured to a precision of 
1/8 diode by comparing the outputs of the diodes immediately 
adjacent to the peak. The image is built up by accumulating the 
value in a digital memory corresponding to the location at which 
each scintillation is detected. The present capacity of the memory is 
1.5 million bytes, or 750,000 locations. The typical format of 
the image is 3040 elements in the wavelength direction x 256 ele- 
ments along the slit. The image memory is connected to a 
minicomputer. 

The two-dimensional feature and the added resolution offer many 
advantages. Sky background can be determined more precisely 
than before, galaxy rotation and other measurements can be made 
more efficiently, and two or more objects can be observed 
simultaneously by advantageous placement of slit assemblies. 

The second new instrument is the direct CCD camera. This de- 
tector eschews image intensifiers for the very high quantum effi- 
ciency of the CCD itself. The unintensified signals are very weak, 
and stringent demands are placed on output amplification. 

The direct CCD is an RCA device with 320 x 512 elements. The 
chip is cooled in a liquid nitrogen dewar and operates in a 
vacuum. Most of the electronics to operate the CCD are attached 
to the outside of the dewar, connected by vacuum feedthroughs. 
The signal is digitized by a 15-bit analog-to-digital converter. 

The minicomputer used to control the CCD camera and to store 
the resulting images is identical in design to the one used 
for the 2D-Frutti. A third complete computer system is maintained 
at Las Campanas as a spare. A vacuum pumping station is used to 
maintain the dewar vacuum. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 77 

The CCD has a much higher dynamic range than the 2D-Frutti 
(i.e., it can record great ranges in brightness with high accuracy in 
a single observation), and it is ideal for precise broad-band 
photometry of extended objects or of many objects in a single field. 

The electronic revolution also reaches into other areas of 
research. Preston finds a striking example in the use of digitizing 
techniques for scanning photographic plates. Several decades ago, 
he explains, investigators at the Lick Observatory spent ten years 
conducting a visual, microscopic inspection of photographs covering 
thousands of square degrees of sky; meticulously, they counted 
faint, marginally resolved galaxies, a few square arc minutes at a 
time. Their effort proved of immense value later, when other re- 
searchers studied the large-scale distribution of matter in the Uni- 
verse and the distribution of absorbing material in our Galaxy. But 
the program was costly in terms of human effort. 

Today, investigators at Carnegie's Observatories still conduct 
such surveys from photography. But now, instead of examining the 
plates by eye, they digitize them by a process of scanning 
microdensitometry; faint, small galaxies are detected by computer 
comparison of the shapes of all images with those produced by the 
"point sources" (i.e., stars). The technique is very fast, and it elimi- 
nates errors caused by fatigue and tedium. Meanwhile at 
DTM, investigators are applying like digital techniques to find, cat- 
alog, and measure fine structures in images of elliptical galaxies. 
Here too, the method is vastly superior in speed and precision to 
old photographic enhancement techniques. 

Preston notes that the digital revolution brings its price. Both 
the 2D-Frutti and the direct CCD camera will make unprecedented 
demands on the computer in Pasadena. It is plain that their 
use will require planning to cope with the flood of new data; other- 
wise, Preston concludes, "we will drown in a sea of numbers." 

Preparation for the Hubble Space Telescope 

The launch of the Edwin P. Hubble Space Telescope awaits late 
1986, but in many of their activities in this report year, Carnegie 
astronomers made preparations for its use. Jerome Kristian served 
as a member of the Investigative Definition Team for the 
Wide Field/Planetary Camera. Allan Sandage completed a NASA- 
sponsored catalog of resolved galaxies suitable for many studies in 
space (see page 64); several staff members participated in 
committee work of the Space Telescope Science Institute. DTM's 
Vera Rubin, for example, chaired the Working Group on 
Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies, whose membership included Alan 
Dressier and Allan Sandage. 

During the year, 26 nights at the 1-meter Swope telescope at Las 
Campanas were allocated to William Baum of Lowell Observatory 
for establishing photometric standard stars for use with the filter 



78 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

set of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera. The project observer, 
Hugh Harris (Lowell Observatory), subsequently reported comple- 
tion of "all important parts of the project." 

During March 1985 at the Mount Wilson 2.5-meter telescope, 
Michael Shara (Space Telescope Science Institute) and colleagues 
investigated the frequency of binary stars among 250 candidate 
guide stars for the Space Telescope. The Telescope's guiding sys- 
tem will be unusable where two stars of a binary pair are 
too similar in magnitude and unsatisfactorily separated as seen on 
the sky. 

Earlier estimates held that such binaries would occur in about 
10% of cases; given that only three guide stars are to be 
programmed for each Space Telescope target, anything higher than 
10% would create a significant problem. Preliminary analysis of the 
Mount Wilson data shows that the frequency is greater than 20%, 
so that changes in Space Telescope operational procedures 
or software appear to be needed. 

The Formation of the Planets 

From the perspective of the origin of the Sun and 

the entire solar system, the formation of the 

terrestrial planets, including the Earth and its 

satellite, the Moon, is but a minor detail. 

Nevertheless, the manner in which the Earth 

formed is essential to defining its initial state, which 

in turn to a large extent determined its subsequent 

history. 

George W. Wetherill, Director 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 
July 1985 

The composition of planets ultimately can be traced 
back to the processes in the primordial solar nebula. 

Hatten S. Yoder, Jr., Director 

Geophysical Laboratory 

July 1985 

About AVz billion years ago, a small instability occurred in a 
region of our Milky Way Galaxy about 30,000 light years from Gal- 
axy Center. The local material began to collapse gravitationally to- 
ward a common center of mass, and as the collapse proceeded the 
effects of the initial rotation became more and more important. 
Most of the mass eventually gathered at the center to form a single 
new star, and around this central star was formed a thin 
disk of gas and dust. Both the disk and the star rotated about the 
same, central axis, in the same direction. Several million 
years later, several planets and many smaller orbiting bodies were 
in place — formed of the gas and dust of the rotating disk. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 79 

These events are the large picture of the formation of our Sun and 
solar system, as it is generally understood. 

Practitioners of several subdisciplines are turning their attention 
to various stages in this process, testing its validity and expanding 
understanding of its details. Experimentalists at the Geophysical 
Laboratory are studying materials under high-temperature and 
near- vacuum conditions, simulating those that may have existed in 
the "solar nebula." Investigators at DTM are using computer simu- 
lations to gain understanding of how an ensemble of smaller bodies 
may have accumulated to form the present inner planets. 
Other investigators, at the Geophysical Laboratory, in experiments 
at high pressures, are asking about the interiors and origins of gas- 
eous, outer planets. 

Experiments in Planetary Petrology at the Geophysical Labora- 
tory. Reviewing work on the evolutionary processes of the 
solar system, Hatten Yoder notes that much has been learned from 
lunar and planetary missions, by observations from the Earth, and 
by experimental work with earth materials. Data of urgent 
interest include pressures, temperatures, and chemical compositions 
at different times and places in the evolving solar system. 

Yoder writes that theoretical calculations show that pressures 
and temperatures increased toward the center of the collapsing so- 
lar nebula. These pressure and temperature gradients, he 
continues, controlled the distribution of the elements in the solar 
nebula with a systematic increase in volatility (and decrease in den- 
sity) with increasing distance from the center of the collapsing ne- 
bula. It is thus fundamental to determine the conditions in 
the solar nebula during the initial transition from the vapor state 
of the materials ultimately destined to form the planets and 
moons, as well as the physicochemical principles governing the evo- 
lution of these materials during condensation. 

Certain materials found in meteorites, especially in the calcium- 
rich and aluminum-rich inclusions of carbonaceous chondrites, are 
believed to be representative of the oldest solar system material. 
These inclusions suggest that such typical terrestrial rock-forming 
minerals as pyroxene and melilite were important during early 
crystallization in the solar nebula. Important end members of the 
solid solutions in these mineral groups are diopside (CaMgSi 2 6 ) 
and akermanite (Ca 2 MgSi 2 7 ). 

A basic point is how these minerals formed — whether by direct 
condensation from a gas or by crystallization from an intermediate 
liquid phase (partially or completely molten rock), or whether con- 
densation indeed played an important role in the formation 
of the proto-solar system. Bj0rn Mysen, David Virgo, and Ikuo 
Kushiro at the Geophysical Laboratory have conducted experiments 
with both materials to determine the pressure and temperature 
conditions under which these processes may have occurred. 



80 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



They find that under no circumstance can diopside or akermanite 
precipitate directly from a gas at pressures above about 4 
x 10 " 7 bars. Only a melt will condense. At conditions where vapor 
and melt are both present, there is a pronounced increase 
of Ca relative to Mg in the liquid phase. Upon further cooling at 
temperatures near 1500°C and pressures above ~10~ 7 bar, crystal- 
line diopside and akermanite coexist with Ca-enriched liquid. The 
complexities of this process, which most likely took place 
as parts of the solar system evolved in this pressure-temperature 
region, are clearly large. 

The experiments are also showing that under these low-pressure 
conditions the solidus temperature below which liquid does 
not exist for both minerals is lowered below that at 1 bar pressure. 
At sufficiently low pressure the crystalline silicates form directly 



1(T 



10" 1U - 



10' 



Oiopside 




Liquid + Vapor 



Vapor 



DD □ 



1300 



1400 



TEMPERATURE, °C 



1500 



-~io- 



10" 



10-* - 





I 

B 


I 




i 


- 




o 

a 
a 
> 
+ 
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_l 
+ 


+ Liquid 

B 


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9) 

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1 

£ 
< 


a 

'c 
n 

E 
3 

< 

a 


a 




— 










_ 




Akermanite 




u 


a 


Liquid + Vapor 


— 






Ob 


□ 


laa__a_ 




Akermanite 
+ Larnite 
+ Vapor 

I 


Larnit 

1 


\ 

e + Vapor 


Vapor 

1 



1300 



1400 



TEMPERATURE, °C 



1500 



Results of the recent experiments at the Geophysical Laboratory at near- vac- 
uum pressures approximating conditions in the early solar system. Experiments 
with (A) CaMgSi 2 6 (diopside) and (B) Ca2MgSi 2 7 (akermanite) in hydrogen va- 
por. Symbols show state reached by the sample at the experimental conditions 
shown. (Open squares, vapor; diagonally divided squares, liquid; horizontally di- 
vided squares, crystal + liquid; vertically divided squares, larnite + vapor; solid 
squares, all crystalline diopside or akermanite.) Note that liquid diopside does not 
occur at pressures below about 10 ~ 7 bars. Above this pressure, chemical fraction- 
ation associated with the liquid state is an important aspect in understanding the 
formation of the solid material now composing the planets and moons of the solar 
system. Note the existence of the intermediate larnite material in vapor-akerman- 
ite transition. 




The high-vacuum apparatus built at the Geophysical Labora- 
tory for experiments at pressures and temperatures believed to 
exist during formation of the solar system. The assembly contains 
a small sample chamber and a heater unit. Hydrogen gas is bled 
in, and the desired conditions are maintained during the several 
hours of an experimental run. 



from a gas; that pressure is about two orders of magnitude lower 
for akermanite than for diopside. The temperature for the vapor- 
crystal surface below 10 ~ 9 bars is nearly 100°C higher for 
akermanite than for diopside. Finally, whereas diopside evaporates 
directly to a gas phase without change in proportion of the 
components, with increasing temperature akermanite is first trans- 
formed to a mineral deficient in Mg and Si (larnite, Ca 2 Si0 4 ) 
perhaps as much as 100°C below the final temperature of evapora- 
tion. Analytical data on residual materials sampled during 
the evaporation process in the laboratory are in accord with this 
inference. This last observation, predicted by theory but never 
confirmed experimentally, is consistent with strong fractionation of 
Mg (and to a lesser degree Si) into the vapor phase during 
condensation in the solar nebula. 

Yoder comments that perhaps the most important conclusion to 
be drawn is that clinopyroxene and melilite minerals could have 
formed directly by condensation processes in the solar nebula only 
under very low pressure — less than about 10 ~ 7 bars. This 
conclusion is now reached on the basis of firm experimental work. 
Further, whereas traditional models of chemical processes 
in the solar nebula could not account for the widespread evidence 
indicating that melting processes were important, the new 
experimental data remove this obstacle. Because of positive pres- 
sure and temperature gradients toward the center of the 
nebula, it is likely that condensation into melt from the gas phase 
and subsequent crystallization of minerals from the melt were in- 
creasingly important toward the center of the nebula. This 
hypothesis, Yoder notes, leads to the suggestion that there must be 



82 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

systematic chemical differences between the terrestrial planets as a 
function of their distance from the Sun. 

Studies at DTM on the Accumulation of the Terrestrial Planets. 
Much of George Wetherill's research in recent years has been di- 
rected toward understanding how an ensemble of orbiting smaller 
bodies could have grown by accumulation into the present 
system of planets. Until recently, it was commonly assumed that 
four "embryos" of the present inner planets were formed 
early in solar system history, and that each then grew, largely in- 
dependently of one another, by accumulating lesser bodies. 
Wetherill, however, in his computer simulations of planetary 
growth, has shown how a population of many smaller planetesimals 
whose total mass is roughly that of the present inner planets could 
grow through accumulation to reach a final configuration much like 
the present solar system. In his latest work, Wetherill started with 
a population of 500 planetesimals. (This improvement over 
his earlier 100-body simulations was made possible by the VAX 11- 
780 computer acquired by Carnegie several years ago.) WetherhTs 
new results show the likelihood that early planetary growth 
involved, not four main embryos, but an early population of many 
smaller bodies. 

Further, he finds that in the late stages of accumulation, more 
than four main bodies were formed. Several of these then collided 
with one another to form the final planets seen today; bodies as 
large as present Mars and Mercury collided with the Earth and Ve- 
nus during the late stages of growth. The strong mutual 
gravitational perturbations of these massive bodies caused their or- 
bits to change drastically during growth. As a consequence, 
Wetherill believes, it is likely that the present planets interchanged 
their positions as they grew larger. This is particularly true 
for the more easily perturbed smaller planets, Mercury and Mars. 
It is possible that Mercury experienced much of its growth in orbits 
beyond the present orbit of the Earth. 

The impacts of these large bodies on one another very likely 
influenced profoundly their thermal, chemical, and geological evo- 
lution. The energy input associated with. even a single major impact 
could have melted and chemically differentiated a large fraction of 
the Earth. 

Such events may have been of special importance in the formation 
of the Moon, Wetherill notes. It has always been unclear 
how an object as large as the Moon could have acquired the angular 
(i.e., rotational) momentum needed to maintain its present 
orbit. Earlier calculations of planetary growth led to the result that 
the angular momentum contributions of the small accumulating bod- 
ies would nearly cancel one another, so that the resulting net 
angular momentum about each planet would be close to zero. This 
would probably not be the case if the input of angular momentum 



0.3 r 



0.2 



0.1 



ACCUMULATION OF 500 BODIES 
ELAPSED TIME = 1.8 MILLION YEARS 
18% of Mass in Final Planets 
(~60% of final radii) 



• «• 



§*V*{o?to, 



VI • v. * ••• 



9 
O 



t*t 






X 



4 

•1 



"0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 | 1.2 1.4 
Mercury Earth Venus Mars 

SEMI-MAJOR AXIS (A.U. 



1.6 1.8 



2.0 



In computer simulations exploring the accumu- 
lation of the inner planets, DTM's George Weth- 
erill programmed a swarm of 500 planetesimals 
in elliptical orbits about the Sun. The above dia- 
grams, representing one such simulation run, 
plot eccentricity (degree of ellipticity) against the 
semi-major axis (distance from Sun) for individ- 
ual bodies after 1.8, 9.4, and 252 million years. 
The objects destined to become the four inner 
planets are indicated. At 252 million years, 
nearly all of the initial mass of the swarm is in 
the four principal bodies. 















ACCUMULATION OF 500 BODIES 


0.4 






• 




ELAPSED TIME = 9.4 M.Y. 
66% of Mass in Final Planets 
(87% of final radius) 

•• 








. 


o 


• • 


0.3 






O 




• 

• 
• 

• 


0.2 






• 
• 

o 

• 


• • 
o 


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? 




. 


0.1 






I 

I 
I 
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I 




O I 

o 








I 


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1 


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I 

! , 


f I 


1 


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1 1 1 1 1 1 


.2 


0.4 


l 0.6 


1 0.8 


1.0 


1.2 1.4 i 1.6 1.8 2.0 






Mercury Venus 


Ea 


rth Mars 



0.4 r 



0.3- 



0.2 



0.1 



ACCUMULATION OF 500 BODIES 
ELAPSED TIME = 252 MILLION YEARS 



0.7x10 27 g O 



,, 4.6x10^ 
0.6x10 27 g B 



6.1 x lO^g 



SEMI-MAJOR AXIS (A.U.) 



0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 
SEMI-MAJOR AXIS (A.U.) 



to the Earth-Moon system was dominated by a few, large 
events. Thus, new calculations by Wetherill provide support for the 
idea that the Moon may have been formed from the Earth 
as the result of a giant collision with a Mars-sized body. This hy- 
pothesis is now receiving serious theoretical treatment, and it is 
possible that the long-standing question of the origin of the Moon 
may soon have a plausible answer. 

Like many important results in science, Wetherill's are in part an 
evolution from earlier discoveries by others. Last year, Hiroshi 
Mizuno and Alan Boss at DTM (Year Book 83, pp. 70-71) used nu- 
merical modeling to examine the phenomenon of "tidal disruption," 
which occurs when two bodies approach one another, within about 
three times the radius of the larger body. In such cases, 
the larger body exerts forces on the smaller, which if continued long 
enough, would fragment the smaller into many pieces. If this 
regularly occurred, all but the largest bodies would be destroyed, 
and the conclusion that planetary accumulation is characterized by 
collisions of bodies of comparable mass would be invalid. 

Mizuno and Boss showed that it is quite unlikely that tidal dis- 



84 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

ruption is frequent enough to lead to this result. They demonstrat- 
ed, in agreement with the classical view, that if the smaller body 
was in close orbit about the larger and if the tidal forces had an 
indefinite time to operate, then tidal disruption would occur. In 
contrast, on the time scale of a "flyby" close encounter, these forces 
would be ineffectual. The only possible exception is an extremely 
close encounter of a previously melted body; it is likely that such 
circumstances are so rare as to be of only minor importance. 

Wetherill's 500-body simulation took strength from the demon- 
stration by Mizuno and Boss that tidal disruption is not a 
major factor; otherwise, a much larger starting population would 
have been required to achieve the same credibility of result. 

Where Do Meteorites Come From? In yet another example of 
continuity in discovery, Wetherill has broadened his earlier work 
exploring the findings of Jack Wisdom, now at MIT. Wisdom 
showed that fragments produced by collisions among asteroids in 
the region 2.5 A.U. from the Sun can be perturbed into 
Earth-crossing orbits on a ~10 6 -year time scale. (An Astronomical 
Unit, or A.U., is the average distance of Earth's orbit from the 
Sun.) Wetherill showed that this population of fragments fits the 
observational data for ordinary chondrites — the most abundant 
type of meteorite {Year Book 83, p. 69.) 

Wetherill has now explored other regions of the asteroid belt as 
possible sources of less-common types of meteorites. His method is 
to determine the ratio of the fragment yield from alternative 
regions of the asteroid belt to that at 2.5 A.U. In this way, he 
avoids the difficult calculations of absolute meteorite yields — a cal- 
culation requiring uncertain extrapolation of laboratory hyper- 
velocity data. 

He finds that the second-most-important source region, at least 
for stony meteorites, is the innermost edge of the asteroid belt, be- 
tween 2.17 and 2.25 A.U. The abundant low-inclination population 
of asteroids in this region will produce about 5-10% of the 
terrestrial flux of stony meteorites — in good agreement with the 
abundance of another important type of meteorite, the basaltic 
achondrites. Furthermore, the orbits predicted for meteorites from 
this region agree with those actually seen for this class, as 
indicated by the near-equality of afternoon and morning meteorite 
falls. (This contrasts with the ordinary chondrites from 2.50 A.U., 
which fall predominantly in the afternoon.) Wetherill finds 
other regions of the asteroid belt, including some regions to which 
significant meteorite production has been attributed, to be 
of minor significance as stony meteorite sources. 

Thus it appears that major progress is being made toward 
understanding a basic problem of planetary science — identification 
of the sources of the meteorites, and development of a planetologi- 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 85 

cal context for interpreting the record of the early solar system 
preserved in them. 

Laboratory Investigations of the Outer Planets. Several investi- 
gations at the Geophysical Laboratory bear on the origins 
and compositions of the outer planets (Jupiter and beyond). Hatten 
Yoder writes that the outer planets formed from the condensation 
(and accretion) of more-volatile components of the solar nebula. The 
major components of the outer planets are hydrogen and 
helium; present in lesser amounts are water, ammonia, methane, 
nitrogen, and sulfur-bearing components. Knowledge of the equa- 
tions of state (i.e., in part, their pressure vs. density relations) of 
these materials is important for determining the planetary internal 
structures. For example, the density distribution in the outer parts 
of Jupiter is consistent with the view that molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) 
is a major component. A distinction between a "crust" and 
"mantle" in Jupiter, at pressures between 1 and 2 Mbar, may be 
associated with phase transitions principally in hydrogen. 

Accordingly, staff members Ho-kwang Mao and Peter Bell, with 
postdoctoral fellow Russell Hemley, are investigating experimental- 
ly the behavior of hydrogen at appropriate high pressures. 
Using the Laboratory's diamond-anvil, high-pressure apparatus, 
these investigators recorded the Raman spectra of solid, crystalline 
hydrogen under increasing static pressures up to about 1.5 
Mbar, in order to characterize the interaction between the hydro- 
gen atoms as a function of pressure. They observed a gradual 
change in vibrational properties beginning near 0.35 Mbar, which 
increased significantly above 1.0 Mbar. Although detailed structural 
interpretation of the results requires further study, the data are 
consistent with a crust-mantle boundary characterized by a trans- 
formation of essentially molecular hydrogen to a structural state 
with greatly weakened H-H interaction and, therefore, greatly dif- 
ferent physical properties at pressures above about 1 Mbar. 

In companion studies, the same investigators conducted experi- 
ments at high pressures with solid nitrogen and (in collaboration 
with research associate Ji-an Xu, predoctoral fellow Andrew Jeph- 
coat, and Marvin Ross of the Lawrence Livermore Labora- 
tory) with argon. These investigations provide fundamentally im- 
portant information on the physics of gases at high pressure. Nitro- 
gen and possibly argon are minor constituents of the planets; 
indeed, theoretical calculations suggesting that molecular nitrogen 
is transformed to a metallic state near 0.8 Mbar raise the 
geophysical implication that metallic nitrogen could exist in the 
deep mantle of the Earth. The current Raman spectroscopic and 
optical observations indicate, however, that this transformation oc- 
curs at static pressures above 1.5 Mbar. Thus, it is a very 
speculative possibility that metallic nitrogen could exist as a minor 



86 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

component in the core of the Earth as well as in deep crustal 
portions of the outer planets. 

The Restless Earth: Mantle, Plate, and Continent Interactions 

The crucial roles of the rigid plates of the Earth's crust and 
mantle in shaping the Earth's geological processes became known 
to scientists some twenty years ago. The forces and motions of 
these plates, or "plate tectonics," became the center of a new syn- 
thesis of knowledge in the earth sciences, one that still gives focus 
to our understanding of the Earth and a frame for further 
research. The final synthesis was reached by scientists elsewhere, 
but Carnegie investigators at DTM and the Geophysical Laboratory 
made early contributions in developing the two necessary 
antecedents — the K/Ar isotope dating method, which provided the 
critical power of close discrimination among relatively young rocks, 
and an understanding of the Earth's magnetic reversals seen in 
rocks. 

Since 1966, much of the leading inquiry in the earth sciences has 
been guided by attempts to comprehend the behavior of the 
lithospheric plates. Today, geochemists, seismologists, and experi- 
mental geophysicists are interested in how plate activity is 
related to the evolution and behavior of (1) the continents above 
and (2) the mantle below. Much of the work of Carnegie's earth sci- 
entists is therefore focused on related questions of continent-plate- 
mantle interaction. 

Plate Subduction Processes. New oceanic plates are formed at 
the midocean ridges by the upwelling of mantle material; since the 
Earth's dimensions are not increasing, in some way an equal 
amount of material must be returning downward into the mantle. 
For the most part, this occurs at "subduction zones" — where ocean 
plates abut and move downward beneath the lighter material of 
continents. Subduction and its associated melting, metamorphism, 
volcanic and seismic activity, and tectonic processes in continental 
crust present difficult problems for earth scientists. But in these 
phenomena lie vital keys, both to the formation and evolution of the 
continental masses and to the structure and properties of the 
mantle beneath. 

A subduction region of extreme interest lies in the western part 
of South America, including Peru. John Schneider and Selwyn 
Sacks of DTM, with colleague Anibal Rodriguez of Universidad Na- 
tional San Agustin, are attempting to take advantage of the 
many earthquakes in the vicinity of the descending slab in an effort 
to characterize the exact shape of the slab and the tectonic 
stresses involved in its deformation. When the positions of these 
earthquakes are accurately determined by seismological techniques 
and plotted on a three-dimensional map of the region, the 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 

earthquakes illuminate the slab structure, revealing its position 
much in the way that electric lights are used to show low flyers the 
position of the cables of a suspension bridge. 

Two distinct mechanisms produce the earthquakes along the slab. 
At depths shallower than about 70 kilometers, earthquakes 
originate at the upper boundary of the slab from stresses generated 
at the boundary of the descending oceanic and overriding 
continental plates. The deeper earthquakes, however, originate 
within the descending slab itself. The source of the stresses causing 
the deeper earthquakes is poorly understood. 

In moving toward a new interpretation of the stresses and 
behavior of the slab, Sacks and Akira Hasegawa (Tohoku Universi- 
ty, Japan) several years ago used the three-dimensional distribution 
of earthquakes to map the position of the slab in central 
Peru, where the geometry of subduction is unusual. To the south 
of this region, the slab dips beneath the continent at an angle 
about thirty degrees from the horizontal — i.e., the subduction is 
essentially normal. In central Peru, however, after an initial 
dip to a depth of about 80 kilometers, the subducted plate appears 
to be buoyant and moves horizontally for several hundred 
kilometers before again plunging downward. 

Between central Peru and the region of normal subduction lies a 
zone of contortion. Until recently, existing seismic data were insuf- 
ficient to evaluate the extremely complex stresses in this zone. 



87 



By mapping the three-dimensional distribution 
of earthquakes in the region, seismologists at 
DTM determined that in southern Peru (repre- 
sented by the lower curves) the descending 
oceanic slab is subducted steeply to great depths. 
In central Peru, however (represented by the 
upper curves), after the initial dip to about 100 
kilometers, slab motion is nearly horizontal. John 
Schneider, Selwyn Sacks, and Anibal Rodriguez 
(Universidad Nacional de San Agustin in Are- 
quipa) are studying the stress patterns in the in- 
tervening zone of contortion, where the sinking 
plate is tugging on the more buoyant one. Data 
are from a network of seismographs operated by 
the Universidad. 




120 



88 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

A local network of high-sensitivity seismographs operated by the 
Universidad Nacional de San Agustin in Arequipa has now 
provided ample data. Schneider, Sacks, and Rodriguez find that the 
stresses in the contorted zone are those expected from a 
model where the normally sinking plate is tugging on the more 
buoyant slab in central Peru, trying to pull it down into the mantle 
while the more buoyant slab resists these forces. The complex 
stress patterns in the zone of contortion appear to result from in- 
terplay of these opposing forces. 

The observations support the idea that the principal source of the 
stress in all these regions is the same: in some way the slab 
is acting as a stress guide which causes the tensional forces to be 
parallel to the slab outside the contorted region. The weight of the 
slab itself is sufficient to explain the contorted motion of its 
subduction. Alternative hypotheses, which involve stresses that ul- 
timately result from the distortion of the slab, are difficult 
to reconcile with the data and fail to provide a unified explanation of 
the stress distributions in all three — the normal, contorted, 
and buoyant — subduction regions. 

How Deep Subduction? The issue whether subducted plates are 
confined to the upper mantle or whether they travel deeper, into 
the lower mantle, has remained a topic of intense controversy for 
more than a decade. Staff member Paul Silver and postdoctoral fel- 
low Winston Chan at DTM recently found seismic evidence 
strongly suggesting that at least one plate — the Pacific plate under 
the Sea of Okhotsk — descends into the lower mantle. Silver and 
Chan examined seismograms from several very deep earthquakes 
(about 600 km deep) from this region recorded at North American 
stations of the Global Digital Seismic Network. They found that 
many of the shear waves consist of two and sometimes three 
pulses, rather than a single arrival. When seen elsewhere, this phe- 
nomenon, called multipathing, is usually the result of abrupt 
changes in seismic velocity along the path of the wave travel. 

The investigators considered several possible causes for the extra 
pulses: a flat-lying discontinuity beneath the receiving stations 
(such as the Moho), a deeper discontinuity in the lower mantle, or 
some form of heterogeneity near the earthquakes. By various argu- 
ments Silver and Chan ruled out all but the third possibility, and 
they deemed that a possible explanation lay in the presence of sub- 
ducted slabs in the regions where the earthquakes occurred. Since 
the slabs would have descended into a relatively hot mantle, the 
slabs would be colder and therefore have higher seismic velocities 
than the ambient mantle. The multiple pulse arrivals thus could be 
produced by refractions from this high-seismic- velocity material. 

To test the idea, Silver and Chan conducted a series of 
numerical simulations, examining the effect of a high- velocity slab 
on the shear waves leaving the earthquake region. They found that 
strong refractions would indeed be expected in signals arriving at 




650 km DISCONTINUITY 



A schematic cross-section illustrating the paths taken by waves 
produced by deep earthquakes beneath the Sea of Okhotsk. Staff 
member Paul Silver and postdoctoral fellow Winston Chan at 
DTM demonstrate that the seismic signals originating at the sub- 
ducted slab are refracted in the lower mantle; multipathing is 
seen in the signals received at the seismograph stations in North 
America, shown in the adjacent map. The result is evidence sup- 
porting the existence of deep subduction. 



the stations used in the study. Significantly, since the earthquakes 
are very deep and since the waves observed start downward from 
the earthquake source, the places where the waves "bounce" off the 
slab must be in the lower mantle — at least several hundred 
kilometers beneath the 650-km discontinuity. Thus, the results pro- 
vide evidence that the subducted slabs indeed penetrate this 
important barrier. (See figure, above.) 



New Insights from Older Data. Leonidas Ocola of Instituto 
Geofisico del Peru, L. Thomas Aldrich of DTM, and J. H. Luetgert 
of the U.S. Geological Survey have recently analyzed past 
seismic data, using modern ray-tracing and other techniques. The 
investigators sought to develop a reasonable picture of the seismic 
velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath 
the ancient Arequipa Massif in Peru. The data was originally ob- 



90 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

tained by the DTM staff, collaborating with South American and 
North American colleagues in 1957, 1968, 1972, and 1976. 

The chief elements of the new interpretation are that (1) in the 
region where the Nazca ridge intersects the continent — the region 
of horizontal subduction studied by Schneider, Sacks, and 
Rodriguez — refracting interfaces in the crust are shallower than 
elsewhere, suggesting that the ridge under the continent provides a 
buoyant effect, (2) the suite of seismic velocities from Lima 
southward to the Peru-Chile border is consistent with suites found 
in other very old terrains, (3) vertical blocks of slow seismic 
velocity lie near and to the southwest of the intersection of the con- 
tinent and the Nazca ridge, and (4) while the refracting interfaces 
dip smoothly under the Arequipa Massif, the structure changes 
dramatically toward the northeast into the high plateau of central 
Peru, both in the velocities found and in their dip. 

Meanwhile, measurements of the geomagnetic field at a network 
of stations in the Andean countries continue to provide a 
wealth of raw data for identifying electrical conductivity structures 
at depth within the Earth. Variations in components of the 
magnetic field are analyzed to deduce the subsurface currents that 
would produce the observed relationships. Presently at DTM, Aid- 
rich and G. Z. Qi (on leave from the Institute of Geophysics, State 
Seismological Bureau, Beijing) have a twofold goal: to study the 
conductivity structure of the Andean region as a property in itself, 
and, when possible, to correlate the conductivity structure 
with other features of the region identified from seismic or geo- 
chemical information. They have shown, for example, that the con- 
ductivity structure in Peru, Bolivia, and northern Chile is 
quite different from that in central Chile — a result suggestive of the 
recent seismic results. 

Qi and Aldrich have made an intensive comparison of possible 
methods for analyzing the magnetic data of the past twenty years. 
From studies using real data, they have concluded that a 
Butterworth-filtering technique allows them to select the most suit- 
able part of a time series in each frequency band for measuring 
each component of the magnetic field. In addition, they are adapt- 
ing the numerical-modeling techniques of.T. R. Madden of 
MIT to the DTM computational facilities, toward the development 
of a modeling program for explaining the Butterworth-filtered data 
and exploring the geophysical ramifications. 

The collection of past seismic and magnetic data from the Andes 
offers a rich resource for use in up-to-date frontier research. 
Aldrich, who spent many years at the Andes stations, and his 
colleagues are reaping benefits from past DTM initiatives 
in a region of extreme scientific interest. 

Continent Formation: Geochemical Evidence from Mantle- 
Derived Rocks. Earth scientists are something like historians. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 91 

Their goal of understanding the present state of the Earth requires 
learning how the Earth has evolved from its initial state, to 
include the physics and chemistry of the processes responsible for 
that evolution. A history book without dates or chronology would 
be a mere collection of unrelatable events. Until a few decades ago, 
this resembled the condition for that large part of earth history 
known as the Precambrian. The basis for geological chronology was 
largely limited to the fossil record in rocks since the Cambrian — 
i.e., for the last 600 million years. For the Earth's first 3.9 billion 
years, scientists were forced to treat obviously unrelated 
local rock units simply as products of a poorly subdivided "Precam- 
brian time." 

During the last thirty years, new methods of measuring geologi- 
cal time have been developed, in large part owing to work 
by scientists at DTM and the Geophysical Laboratory. Ages can be 
measured using small rock and mineral samples, even though they 
may contain extremely small amounts of the naturally radioactive 
elements rubidium, uranium, thorium, potassium, and samarium. 
Thus it is now possible to date geological events as far back in time 
as rocks have been preserved. 

As dating of earth materials became more widespread, interest- 
ing patterns emerged. Precambrian rocks, it developed, were not 
randomly distributed by age throughout the Earth. The most an- 
cient rocks — those older than about 2.5 billion years — were found 
to cluster in particular regions, which in some cases corresponded 
to regions previously delineated on the basis of tectonic or 
lithological evidence. The younger Precambrian rocks — from 0.6 to 
2.5 billion years in age — tended to surround the regions of 
very old rocks. The clustering by age was further emphasized when 
scientists reconstructed the locations of the continents prior 
to their last major breakup; the clustering was especially evident 
in the adjacent portions of North America, Greenland, Europe, and 
Asia. Later, the oldest known rocks — from 3.5 to 3.8 billion 
years in age — were found in parts of the older regions. 

The emerging pattern suggested the hypothesis that those re- 
gions of rocks older than 2.5 billion years, termed cratons, were the 
sites of formation of the first continental crust early in earth 
history. A major research goal of the isotope geochemistry group 
at DTM is to understand the processes whereby these "continental 
cores" first formed from the mantle and then grew, and the 
relationship of these past processes to those occurring today. 
Equally challenging is to understand the nature of the continental 
mantle underlying the continental crust, and the extent whereby 
this continental mantle is as much a permanent part of the 
continental land mass as the ancient crust observed at the surface. 

In a detailed isotopic and geochemical study of the igneous rocks 
of the largest of these cratons, the Superior Province of Canada, 
DTM's Steven Shirey recently demonstrated that one major compo- 



Positions of the continents prior to the most 
recent major breakup about 200 million years 
ago. Clustering of material by age is evident: re- 
gions of the oldest rocks are generally sur- 
rounded by regions of intermediate age. The 
oldest regions (surrounded by dashes) are be- 
lieved to be the original continental cores (era- 
tons); how they formed from the mantle is a focal 
question among the geochemists at DTM. (After 
Hurley, P. M., and J. R. Rand, Pre-drift conti- 
nental nuclei, Science m, 1229-1242, 1969, and 
Burchfiel, B. C, The continental crust, Scientific 
American 249, 130-145, 1983.) 



<I700 MY 
1700-2500 MY 
>2500 MY 




nent of the 2. 7-billion-y ear-old crustal section — the Mg- and 
Fe-rich basaltic-to-komatiitic volcanic rocks — was derived directly 
from partial melting of mantle materials having only a limited 
amount of isotopic heterogeneity. In its degree of heterogeneity as 
well as in various other geochemical and isotopic characteristics, 
this mantle source may be similar to that supplying modern-day 
basaltic volcanism along the worldwide system of ocean ridges. 

The second major igneous rock composing the Superior Province 
appears to have been derived from a mantle source enriched in 
incompatible elements and melted under different conditions of 
pressure or volatile content. Throughout the world, this rock type 
characterizes continental crust — a feature that distinguishes the lat- 
ter from the purely basaltic crust of the ocean basins. Shirey 
argues that most of this "granitic" component also was derived by 
melting of the mantle, or at least by fractionation of Si- 
rich direct partial melts of the mantle. Shirey suggests that the 
mantle sources of these 2.7-billion-year-old rocks of the Superior 
Province were formed by a process of mantle enrichment, where 
incompatible-element-enriched fluids or melts were added to mantle 
sources originally similar to those of the basaltic-to-komatiitic 
rocks discussed just above. From Nd isotopic data, Shirey has 
shown that this mantle enrichment event occurred not more than 
100 million years before the first episodes of crustal growth in the 
Superior Province. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 



93 



This concept — that the initial stages of cratonic growth occur 
over a short time interval (less than 100 million years) in 
association with mantle melting and enrichment events — is support- 
ed by the study of the oldest rocks of the Kaapvaal craton of 
southern Africa by DTM staff member Richard Carlson. 

Carlson showed that the mixed basaltic and more "granitic" com- 
ponents of the highly metamorphosed Ngwane gneiss of Swaziland 
have exactly the same initial Nd isotopic characteristics as 
the basaltic-komatiitic volcanic rocks of the nearby Onverwacht 
Group. When combined on the same isochron diagram both the data 
for the Ngwane gneiss and Onverwacht volcanic rocks plot 
along the same 3.54-billion-year isochron, thereby indicating gener- 
ation from a common mantle source over a period not exceeding 50 
million years. 

The Kaapvaal has long interested Geophysical Laboratory staff 
member Francis R. Boyd, who is now developing a theory for the 
formation of peridotite xenoliths — rocks erupted to the surface in 
kimberlite pipes and believed to have originated in the upper man- 
tle. Boyd seeks to distinguish the origins of the xenoliths — 
whether they came from the lithosphere or from the higher-tem- 
perature asthenosphere below, or whether they formed closer to 
the surface by metamorphism and metasomatism in regions sur- 
rounding kimberlite magma chambers. 



.513 — 



.512 — 



55 



fr .511 - 



.51 



- 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 | 1 1 1 | 1 1 1 | 1 1 


\y 


- 


AGC BIMODAL SUITE 


Xy^ 


_ 


- 


M AMPHJBOUTE 




- 





A GRANITOID GNEISS 




- 


- 


Ks^ 




- 




X/" 






- 




ONVERWACHT GROUP 


- 


- 


A,S 


X BASALT - KOMATirTE 


- 


- 


* FELSIC VOLCANICS 


- 


-1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l l 


1- 



.08 



.12 



.14 

147 



.16 



.18 



.22 



Sm/ 144 Nd 



This plot supports the concept of a major enriching event which 
enhanced production of Si-rich rocks in the mantle. The isotopic 
data were obtained by DTM staff member Richard Carlson in 
rocks of the Ngwane gneiss and Onverwacht Group in Africa. 
Data from samples at both places, plotted above, fall along the 
same isochron, thereby indicating their generation from a com- 
mon mantle source during a period of 50 million years or less. 






CU 





I l 


| l l l l | l l l I | I I l 


i | i i i 1 | II II 1 1 1 1/ 


1 1 


16 


— 


WESTERN U.S. PB ISOTOPIC DATA 


— 








A / 


- 


15.8 

















u zi 


- 








rWf* 4 * 


~_ 


15.6 






kL/ u 


— 






o &/ 




- 


15.4 








— 








■ CRAZY MOUNTAINS 


- 






9& O 


A SADDLE MOUNTAINS 


- 








YELLOWSTONE 


- 


15.2 


1 I 


Ki I l l 1 l \ l l 1 l l l 


D SNAKE RIVER PLAIN 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 



15 



16 



17 



18 

2 08 pb/ 204 pb 



19 



20 



21 



Data obtained by Francis Dudas, Richard Carlson, and William 
Hart of DTM from selected young rocks of the western United 
States reveals co-linearity in their Pb isotopic compositions, as 
plotted here. All samples thus appear to derive from the same 
enriched mantle source underlying much of Washington, Idaho, 
and Montana. The result further strengthens the idea that a zone 
of ancient, enriched mantle underlies each continental craton. 



Further understanding of mantle enrichment processes comes 
from the study by DTM predoctoral fellow Francis Dudas of ig- 
neous rocks from the Crazy Mountains of Montana. Although the 
rocks are only about 50 million years old, their Nd and Pb isotopic 
characteristics reveal that their mantle source was enriched in in- 
compatible elements some 2.5 billion years ago, perhaps during the 
same event that created the Superior Province craton. The 
information provided by Dudas, coupled with that found by Carlson 
and former DTM fellow William Hart in a study of young 
basaltic rocks from Oregon, Washington, and Idaho (see Year Book 
81, 82, 83), permits mapping a zone of 2.5-billion-year-old 
enriched mantle beneath the northern United States extending as 
far west as Washington. Thus the view strengthens, that a zone of 
ancient incompatible-element-enriched mantle underlies each major 
continental craton, and is isolated there from mixing with 
the underlying convecting mantle for periods of billions of years. 

Mantle Enrichment by Subduction. Other work by Carlson and 
Hart on certain young basaltic rocks from the western United 
States shows that the mantle sources of these rocks were enriched 
by the addition of material derived from oceanic sediments 
carried down relatively recently with subducted plates. Evidence 
for the same phenomenon — recent mantle enrichment by sediment 
recycling — is seen even more clearly by DTM postdoctoral 
fellow Julie Morris in her combined Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic and 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 95 

trace element study of volcanic rocks related to the Banda subduc- 
tion zone, Indonesia. Working with these very young rocks, Morris 
demonstrates not only that recently subducted sediments have af- 
fected the mantle sources of these lavas, but that the nature of this 
mantle contamination depends on the particular geometric 
and tectonic conditions influencing the source and quantity of the 
material being subducted. 

For several years, Louis Brown, Fouad Tera, and colleagues at 
DTM and the University of Pennsylvania have worked to develop 
methods for measuring the isotope 10 Be in samples of earth 
material, using the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the Uni- 
versity as a mass spectrometer. (See Year Book 83, pp. 79-81.) A 
focus of effort has been to measure 10 Be in various volcanic 
materials, in an attempt to trace how 10 Be collected in sedimentary 
ocean material is carried downward at trenches by subducting 
oceanic plates, eventually to reappear in the magma produced in 
the subduction-zone volcanos. The presence of high 10 Be concentra- 
tions in the volcanic materials would confirm that the overriding 
sediments and the plates themselves participated in the subduction. 
On the other hand, other surface materials — igneous rock 
of the mantle, midocean rises, rift volcanos, hot-spot volcanos, and 
ocean-island volcanos — should have very little 10 Be, always 
less than 10 6 atoms per gram (as opposed to more than 10 9 atoms 
per gram in ocean sediments). 

During the first years of the project, the group sought to develop 
the necessary experimental techniques, confirm that the observed 
concentrations were not results of laboratory or sample contamina- 
tion, and assess the range of concentration in various materials. In 
a recent paper, Tera et at. reported 10 Be concentrations in 
106 arc lavas (where subduction is taking place) and in 33 flood 
basalt and other non-arc samples. Some of the arc lavas, as 
expected, exhibited high concentrations of 10 Be. But the investiga- 
tors were surprised to discover great variation among arc 
lavas. The Aleutian and Central American samples have much- 
higher concentrations than the non-arc control group, but samples 
from three arcs — the Mariana, Halmahera, and Sunda — are 
indistinguishable in 10 Be content from the non-arc controls. This 
year, members of the group noted a possible explanation. 

In the sea off southern California, the investigators noticed 10 Be 
deposition on the ocean floor ten times that attributable to 
atmospheric 10 Be in rainfall, a rate previously assumed to apply 
uniformly to the ocean. They explain the observation by noting that 
when an ocean current, in this case the California Current, 
encounters continental runoff, the runoff 10 Be is scavenged, thereby 
raising the overall 10 Be deposition rate and its concentration 
in local ocean-floor sediments. Such mechanisms may well be wide- 
spread near land masses and produce greatly different inventories 
of 10 Be, depending on the currents and the continental runoff. The 



96 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

investigators note that the arc with the highest 10 Be lava 
concentration (Central America) also has the highest offshore sedi- 
mentation rate, while the arc with the lowest 10 Be lava concentra- 
tion (Mariana) has the lowest sedimentation rate. 

Thus, 10 Be inventories must be determined well outboard of 
coastal trenches, in measurements taken at various depths in deep- 
sea cores. Without such measurements, 10 Be values are reached 
only by speculation on the basis of sedimentation rates. 

One structural feature of the Central American arc bears on 
interpretation of the 10 Be data. When the Central American volca- 
nos formed, they punctured an older sedimentary layer of 
uncertain age, on the order of a few million years. It is possible that 
the ascending magma has mixed with these sediments in a 
chamber, so that the 10 Be has been derived from these local sedi- 
ments rather than from ocean plate subduction. Some lava samples 
from the Central American volcanos Pacaya and Cerro Negro, for 
example, contain what could be pieces of unmelted sediment pre- 
sumably carried to the surface more or less intact by the 
lava. Measurements by Brown et al. of 10 Be concentrations in two 
such samples argue against this possibility, as the 10 Be values are 
too low. 

Julie Morris looked at the long-standing question, whether the 
10 Be concentrations of the volcanic samples have been altered after 
their arrival at the surface by exposure to 10 Be-carrying rainfall. 
Morris examined by microscope a large number of thin rock sec- 
tions taken from the volcanic samples. She determined the degree 
of sample alteration by water, and attempted to find correlation be- 
tween such alteration and the 10 Be concentration. She found 
no correlation — a result arguing against rainfall as a major source of 
10 Be in the samples. In addition, she determined that the 
volumes of pure rainwater needed to produce the petrologic altera- 
tions observed could not have been large enough to produce the ob- 
served 10 Be concentrations. 

DTM's Nathalie Valette-Silver and colleagues this year demon- 
strated yet another use for 10 Be measurements. They have 
measured 10 Be concentrations in sediments of various drainage bas- 
ins in the eastern United States, and made comparisons with the 
amounts incident on the basins in rainfall. Their results indicate 
that surface erosion in the Piedmont, landward of the fall line, is 
greater than the past long-term average, perhaps because of de- 
structive farming from about 1750 to 1925. Readings in the Coastal 
Plain and in the Highlands generally indicated steady-state 
erosion. The 10 Be method avoids the need to rely on imperfect mea- 
surements of sediment concentrations in streams and on imperfect 
values of average sediment transport; it promises to be useful for 
studying the rate at which continents are being eroded. 

Theoretical Approaches to the Active Mantle. The movement of 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 97 

heat and material by convection through the mantle has long been 
accepted among earth scientists, and there is general agreement 
that in some way, zones of rising convection in the mantle are 
somehow linked to such surface manifestations as the upwelling of 
heated material at the midocean ridges and, perhaps, at persistent 
hot spots. But beyond this, questions as basic as whether cells of 
convection reach from the foot of the mantle all the way 
to its top, or whether there are two or more distinct layers of con- 
vection, remain unanswered. 

DTM staff members Alan Boss and Selwyn Sacks recently 
improved their models of time-dependent convection in the mantle. 
Because of insufficient resolution, they had been unable to 
verify that the initial, transient period of multiple-layer convection 
shown in their earlier models (Year Book 83, p. 72) was 
not a numerical artifact. To double the spatial resolution in the nu- 
merical code (originally developed by Richard Lux at DTM), a 32- 
fold increase in computer time would have been required, a 
circumstance ruling out use of the Institution's VAX computers. 

The problem was overcome by full-time use of the FPS-100 array 
processor, a high-speed specialized computer, attached to the VAX 
11/780. In this way, Boss and Sacks have calculated ten new 
models which conclusively demonstrate agreement with their earlier 
results. 

Meanwhile, Boss is in the process of developing a new computer 
code for studying mantle convection, one that will be much 
more efficient than the Lux code in calculating present-day convec- 
tion as well as the supposedly more vigorous convection of 
the early Earth. The new code will avoid many of the approxima- 
tions that have limited the applicability of current models 
of mantle convection, relaxing the Boussinesq approximation and 
considering the fully compressible, self-gravitating, two- and three- 
dimensional flow of a spherical mantle. The new code will 
also allow material properties such as thermal conductivity and vis- 
cosity to have arbitrary dependence on pressure, temperature, and 
other variables, subject only to spherical symmetry in the 
viscosity field. Results of laboratory experiments, along with seis- 
mic and geochemical evidence, can thus be introduced with known 
relations in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and petrology to pro- 
vide closer insights into the mantle's history. 

PASSCAL: A Major Venture in Seismology. Much of our 
knowledge of the inner Earth has come from study of seismic vibra- 
tions, or waves, generated by earthquakes or explosions, 
and their travel through the Earth. Until now, however, the reso- 
lution possible with recorded seismic data in general did not allow 
examination of particular, local subsurface features. Thus our 
knowledge of the behavior of the lithospheric plates, for example, 
or of particular regions of the upper mantle, is often vague. 



98 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

PASSCAL — the Program for Array Seismic Studies of the Conti- 
nental Lithosphere — has been established as a major long- 
range research initiative within the National Science Foundation. 
A principal objective is to conduct high-resolution seismic 
studies of the continental lithosphere and beneath, using at least 
1000, matched portable digital seismographs (Year Book 83 , pp. 
100-101). 

The venture is by far the largest and most ambitious scientific 
initiative ever undertaken by the seismological community. Carne- 
gie Institution provided early seed money, and to date DTM has 
acted as the lead institution for funding by NSF. Staff members 
David James and Selwyn Sacks have been named the principal in- 
vestigators, and James has held the responsibility of administering 
funds. Their efforts have focused on the publication and worldwide 
distribution of the PASSCAL Program Plan, and the coordination 
of the instrumentation development program (to which most of the 
funds have been committed). The development of system 
architecture and instrument specifications are well on the way to 
completion, and instruments should be available for field experi- 
ments by 1987. 

PASSCAL is one of two major seismological programs joined 
under Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), a 
nonprofit corporation representing 48 academic institutions. (The 
other major program of IRIS is the 100-station global digital seis- 
mic network.) Beginning in fiscal year 1986, PASSCAL funding will 
be through IRIS, which has a new president, staff, and office. The 
Carnegie role as lead institution will end at that time. 

A new objective will then dominate — to develop the analytical 
methods and data-processing techniques needed to exploit the new 
kinds of seismic data, which will be available massively from both 
PASSCAL and the global seismic network. The challenge 
will be great, for digital data require tools very different from those 
of the past. 

James, Silver, Sacks, Schneider, Chan, and postdoctoral fellow 
Timothy Clarke have been working to develop such tools, 
and to gain practical experience in using them. In collaboration with 
Robert Meyer of the University of Wisconsin, James and 
Clarke have been processing and analyzing data obtained with the 
University's "triggered" portable digital seismic instruments, which 
are among the few now available in the academic community. 

The earthquake of October 28, 1983, at Borah Peak, Idaho (mag- 
nitude 7.3), produced several thousand aftershocks in a region 
trending north-northwest, 75 km long and 15 km deep. Nine Wis- 
consin seismographs were installed in a 10 x 10 km array 
in the region, and recordings were obtained over an eight-day peri- 
od. Of more than 2000 events recorded, the investigators 
are using about 500 in their analysis. About 600 megabytes of total 
digital data are involved, and while this quantity is small 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 99 

in terms of expected PASSCAL data sets, it should amply demon- 
strate the power of digital seismology. The analysis will use the 
seismic data to determine the location in the crust of the 
aftershocks and the seismic velocity structure of the upper crust. 
The earthquake data can then be processed as if they were 
explosion data, using sophisticated methods of data analysis similar 
to those used for conventional reflection seismology. The analysis 
should result in seismic images of deep crustal (and possibly upper 
mantle) reflectors in the Earth below the zone of earthquakes (i.e., 
at depths exceeding 5-15 km) for the general region. 

Experimental Studies on Crust and Upper Mantle Processes 

Advances in the investigation of earth processes 
are perceived to be dependent on the invention of 
new devices for controlling the important variables. 
Such devices and techniques account for the 
apparent sudden spurts of advancement in the 
extension or precision of measurement, whereas 
advancement of ideas of lasting value requires more 
extended time for development and assimilation. 

Hatten S. Yoder, Jr., Director 

Geophysical Laboratory 

July 1985 

Many processes in the evolution of the Earth and terrestrial 
planets are attributable to mass and energy transfers, governed by 
the fundamental laws of physics and chemistry. Such transfers may 
result from interaction between crystalline materials (i.e., 
rocks), partially molten rocks (magma or magmatic liquids), and 
fluids (typically combinations of common components such as water 
and carbon dioxide). In such events as the formation of oceanic and 
continental crust, volcanic activity, and element enrichment 
in crustal rocks, the principal transfer processes are understandable 
only in terms of the chemical equilibria between minerals, 
melts, and fluids, and the physical properties of magma, such as 
density, viscosity, and conductivity. Much of the research at the 
Geophysical Laboratory focuses on the development of a general 
physicochemical basis for characterizing these phenomena. 

Silicate Liquids: How Structure Relates to Property. The macro- 
scopic properties of natural materials reflect the microscopic 
properties, or structures, at the atomic and molecular levels. It is, 
therefore, necessary to determine mineral, melt, and fluid 
structures by laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations, 
and then to relate this structural information to the macroscopic 
properties. Research by staff members Bj0rn Mysen, David Virgo, 
and their associates during the last seven years has resulted in a 
general model of the structure of magmatic liquids and in the iden- 



100 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

tification of many of the principal relationships that exist between 
structure and properties of magmatic liquids. 

Briefly, they have established that the structure of magmatic 
liquids can be described as consisting of many interconnected tetra- 
hedra each having a silicon cation in the center and atoms of 
oxygen in the four corners (the Si0 4 4 ~ units). Individual tetrahedra 
are connected with others by sharing oxygens ("bridging oxygens") 
to form chemically more complex units, such as Si 2 7 6 " (one 
shared oxygen per silicon), Si0 3 2 " (two shared oxygens per silicon 
to form infinitely long chains or rings), Si 2 5 2 " (three shared 
oxygens per silicon to form planar structures), or Si0 2 units (where 
all four oxygens in each tetrahedron are shared by neighboring te- 
trahedra). In those resulting structural units where fewer 
than four oxygens are connected to a neighboring Si, these non- 
bridging oxygens act as links to other structural units through 
bonding with non-Si cations. Each of these cations are bonded to 
six or more such oxygens. In natural magmatic liquids, these units 
occur in varying proportions, which are systematic functions of 
temperature, pressure, and bulk composition. 

A major focus of the current research is to determine thermody- 
namic and physical properties of magmatic liquids within the 
framework of the established structural information. The properties 
are related to the strength of the silicon-oxygen and the 
metal-oxygen bonds. Diffusion, viscous flow, and other transport 
properties of silicate liquids can be described quantitatively in 
terms of the disruption and formation of such bonds. 

For example, the configurational changes in a melt with changes 
in temperature, pressure, and composition have been theoretically 
related to the proportions of the different structural units 
in the melts. These relationships have been studied by My sen, Vir- 
go, visiting investigator Christopher Scarfe (University of 
Alberta), and David Cronin (National Bureau of Standards) in a 
project that included measurement of melt structure and 
determination of the viscosity of the melts. The investigators suc- 
ceeded in observing the expected relations, and they produced the 
first quantitative measure of the changes in activation energy of 
viscous flow as a function of observed structural changes. 

The above study by Mysen and colleagues was designed to evalu- 
ate the principles of a model for use in calculating viscosity 
of magmatic liquids. The melt compositions used were simplifica- 
tions of natural melts. Aluminum is important because it is a major 
element in most natural materials, where Al 3+ may substitute for 
Si 4+ in the silicon-oxygen tetrahedra. Observations from crystal 
chemistry of aluminosilicate minerals show that Al 3+ exhibits dis- 
tinct preferences for crystallographic sites. In aluminosilicate melts 
where the number of available "sites" is greater because of 
the coexistence of different types of structural units, a distinct par- 
titioning of Al 3+ between different units might be suggested. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 101 

Mysen, Virgo, and Friedrich Seifert (University of Kiel) investigat- 
ed predictions of such partitioning in silicate melts, and found that 
substitution of Al 3 + for Si 4+ in the tetrahedra indeed governs the 
makeup of the structural units. The investigators thus predicted 
major changes in liquidus phase equilibria and also the viscous be- 
havior of the melt with changes in the ratio of aluminum 
to silicon in the liquid. 

In a companion study, postdoctoral fellow Donald Dingwell 
investigated the relationships of those data to viscous flow in alumi- 
nosilicate melts. He concluded that, for aluminous systems, 
it is necessary to modify the simple mixing model used to calculate 
configurational entropy of simple silicate systems. He observed two 
different effects. (1) In melts with low Al 3+ content, the viscosity is 
primarily a systematic function of the proportion of aluminum to sil- 
icon in three-dimensional, interconnected oxygen tetrahedra. 
Because of the decreasing bond energies in such structures with 
increasing aluminum content, Dingwell observed the decrease in 
viscosity predicted from the melt structural information. (2) When 
the aluminum content is further increased, the viscosity increases, 
in contradiction to the generally accepted theory for viscous flow of 
silicate melts. The accepted theory, however, does not take 
into account the observation of Mysen, Virgo, and Seifert that be- 
cause of the partitioning of Al 3+ among the structural units in alu- 
minosilicate melts, the concentration of the structural units 
wherein the Al 3+ resides increases in a predictive way. Dingwell 
was able to interpret the viscosity data on this basis. 

Mysen and Virgo's general model of magmatic liquid structure 
provides a frame for describing thermodynamic properties of mag- 
matic liquids and coexisting crystals — needed for understanding the 
geochemistry of partial melting in the Earth's upper mantle, both 
during ascent of the liquid toward the surface and during 
final crystallization to form rock. Virgo and Mysen are the first to 
use laboratory determinations of phase equilibria in chemical sys- 
tems with known crystal and melt structure in this way. 
Application of this method to chemically more complex natural sys- 
tems, if feasible, should greatly simplify the theoretical treatment 
of the geochemistry and petrology of such systems. Ferric-ferrous 
iron equilibria (Fe 3+ -Fe 2+ ) in magmatic rocks, for example, can be 
used to determine temperature and oxygen activity histories of 
magmatic rocks. Virgo and Mysen observed that the crystal-chemi- 
cal behavior of iron in the important mineral clinopyroxene 
differs greatly from that previously suggested. They suggest that 
whereas in coexisting liquid essentially all iron occurs as Fe 3+ , in 
the temperature and oxygen fugacity ranges of natural magmatic 
liquids the iron in clinopyroxene is Fe 2+ . An understanding of this 
behavior could lead to revised models of the role of iron- 
bearing minerals in magmatic rocks. 

That volatiles like water and fluorine are important components 



102 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

of magmatic liquids is seen in the composition of igneous 
rocks and in commonly observed explosive volcanic activity. Various 
experiments have demonstrated that dissolved volatiles affect the 
composition of crystals and liquids in predictable ways, and that 
melts containing volatiles are altered structurally and in their prop- 
erties. 

Several research ventures at the Geophysical Laboratory seek a 
structural basis for predicting properties of volatile-bearing 
magmatic liquids. My sen and Virgo find that H 2 interacts with ox- 
ygen in melts to form OH-bearing structural complexes with all ma- 
jor elements. Whereas earlier models commonly considered water 
solubility mechanisms in terms of random mixing of OH groups in 
the silicate melt structure, My sen and Virgo observed that as many 
as two oxygens of the four in silicon-oxygen tetrahedra will 
be replaced by OH groups. In addition, aluminum, calcium, and 
sodium interact with H 2 to form additional hydroxyl complexes. 
From calculation of their free energies of formation, the relative 
stabilities of the associated hydroxyl complexes were found to be, 
in decreasing order, those of Si, Na, Ca, and Al. 

In an associated study, My sen and Virgo found that fluorine 
dissolves similarly but that the relative stabilities of fluorine com- 
plexes differ in a conceptually similar manner (with F~ as 
OH ~ groups forming analogous complexes) but that the relative 
stabilities of fluorine complexes differ systematically from those of 
hydroxyl. These studies led to a model predicting a melt 
structural basis for the flow properties of hydrous, fluorine-bearing 
liquids — behavior in accord with laboratory observations by 
Dingwell and Mysen. Dingwell and Mysen also examined relations 
between viscosity and water or fluorine contents of natural 
aluminosilicate liquids (granite, rhyolite, and associated rocks); they 
noted that the presence of a small percentage by weight of 
fluorine or water in granitic and rhyolitic magma is probably a re- 
quirement to reach values of viscosity and density necessary for 
such major rock-forming processes as magma aggregation, migra- 
tion, and crystallization in the Earth and planets. 

The Formation of Minerals and Rocks. Petrology was perhaps 
the first of the natural disciplines for which the need was 
recognized for experimentation. Early in the century, this circum- 
stance led directly to the founding of the Geophysical Laboratory. 
Since then, the Laboratory has stressed the chemical and physical- 
chemical aspects of petrology, probably because variations in bulk 
composition are among the most conspicuous properties of 
rocks. Nearly all the work in experimental petrology at the Labora- 
tory is concerned with processes generating marked changes in the 
bulk compositions of igneous and metamorphic rocks or differences 
in the minerals and mineral assemblages they contain. 

Hatten Yoder has been tracing the nature and extent of depar- 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 103 

tures from equilibrium cooling that might generate mutually incom- 
patible phase assemblages in the potash-rich igneous rocks. 
Changes in temperature and water pressure, for example, may al- 
ter the previous compatibility of pairs of minerals, and new 
assemblages may become stable under the new conditions. From 
textural relations in actual rocks and experimental demonstration of 
the reaction, it is often possible to infer the direction of 
reaction and the sequence of changing conditions that have affected 
a rock. 

Such departures from equilibrium may include reheating and 
attendant remelting or partial melting. In much of contemporary 
penological speculation, the mechanism and consequences of partial 
melting are of central importance; yet this complex thermal 
process has never been examined mathematically or experimentally 
in proper detail. The experimental difficulties are formidable. To 
model the simplest forms of the process (the transfer of heat from 
an external plane source, for example), a rather large block of ma- 
terial must be brought to some initial temperature and then, while 
a controlled amount of heat is supplied to it at some fixed 
rate over a considerable period of time, the distribution of tempera- 
ture within it must be monitored periodically at many sites. 




In a demanding series of experiments, Hatten Yoder at the 
Geophysical Laboratory modeled mechanisms and consequences of 
partial melting under conditions representative of the inner 
Earth. Shown here is a photomicrograph of the composition 
nepheline 85.8-sodium disilicate 14.2, after heating for 24 hours 
at 1172°C and 1 atmosphere. The blocky crystals of nepheline, set 
in an etched groundmass of glass, illustrate the extent of crystal 
bridging. Thus, the material in the Earth would have behaved as 
a solid, though permeable and rather plastic. The bar is 15 \xm. 



104 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

Yoder has recently completed a successful investigation of this 
type. At the maximum temperature of 1170°C, the sample was 40% 
melted; yet "crystal bridging" was maintained. Thus, in the 
Earth's crust, material under these conditions would have continued 
to behave as a solid, though permeable and rather plastic. 
This work paves the way for extensive experimentation bearing on 
the heat-transfer aspects of penological problems. 

Yoder's research is concerned with developmental changes 
experienced by a single parent liquid, whereas staff member T. 
Neil Irvine is studying phenomena he thinks best explained by the 
mixing of two such liquids. Irvine is conducting a long-range 
investigation of layered intrusions — bodies of igneous rock formed 
by the slow crystallization of magma beneath the surface. 
As the molten material cools, minerals crystallize in ordered se- 
quence to form layers, some of which may contain ores in useful 
concentrations. As part of this study, Irvine and Martin Sharpe of 
the University of Pretoria are examining the distribution 
of the spinellid minerals chromite and magnetite in the Bushveld 
complex in South Africa. 

The Bushveld is the world's largest known layered intrusion, a 
body 450 x 350 km in plan and 9 km thick. At stratigraphically 
deep levels in the complex, it contains fifteen chromite layers, 
typically from 10 cm to 1 meter thick; at upper levels there are 
some 25 magnetite layers, usually from 10 cm to 2 meters thick. 
Layers of both types extend for many kilometers, and some of each 
type are interstratified with anorthosite and ultramafic or 
mafic rocks. From earlier work (Year Book 81, 82), Irvine and 
Sharpe are persuaded that the intrusion as a whole has been 
formed by the injection and mixing of two magmatic fluids, one ini- 
tially of ultramafic composition, the other anorthositic. Through lab- 
oratory work in which they melted naturally quenched samples of 
these magmas, they have found that in mixtures of the two, the 
first mineral to crystallize is chromite, even though the ultramafic 
liquid by itself first crystallizes olivine and the anorthositic liquid 
by itself first crystallizes plagioclase. This result is regarded as 
strong evidence that the chromite layers of the complex were pro- 
duced by mixing of the two magma types. 

The crystallization of magnetite cannot be studied in similar 
experimental fashion because naturally quenched samples of the ap- 
propriate parent magmas have not been found. Irvine points out, 
however, that the mixing effect discovered experimentally for 
chromite can be realistically modeled in a comparable synthetic 
system and that, in this system, the same effect is observed for 
magnetite when its components (FeO, Fe 2 3 ) are substituted for 
those of chromite (MgO, Cr 2 3 ). It appears, therefore, that under 
certain conditions associated with iron enrichment of the magma by 
fractional crystallization, the mixing effect might indeed also yield 
magnetite layers. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 105 

Gregory Muncill, the W. M. Keck Foundation Research Scholar 
in the Earth Sciences, is concerned primarily with the rate and 
manner of crystal growth. He has been directly determining the 
rates whereby plagioclase crystals grow in relatively simple melts 
of rocklike (haplogranodiorite) composition. Under immediately sub- 
liquidus conditions, early first-phase growth rate is linear, 
and the crystals are platelets of essentially equilibrium composition. 
Employing electron microprobe traverses across the crystal-liquid 
interfaces, Muncill observes that with increased undercooling, mea- 
surable compositional gradients develop in the liquid immediately 
adjacent to growing crystals. The gradients extend only tens of mi- 
crometers from the interfaces, however, and there is no indication 
of zoning in the crystals. (A zoned crystal has a different chemical 
composition in its inner and outer parts.) Muncill concludes that the 
complex and reverse zoning frequently observed in natural 
plagioclase must be a response to departures from steady-state con- 
ditions during crystallization. He is currently designing equipment 
whereby he can include changes in pressure and temperature as ex- 
perimental variables; he is also making a detailed geochemical field 
study of a granodiorite pluton, the plagioclase of which is 
complexly zoned. 

The gradients in composition noted by Muncill are obviously 
diffusion controlled. (Each gradient in the liquid characterizes the 
rate at which material transferred from liquid to growing crystal is 
resupplied from parts of the charge remote from the crystal.) Such 
diffusion-controlled composition gradients may prove to be 
important in connection with local phenomena like the development 
of zoning in phenocrysts or the growth of reaction rims about 
them. On the whole, however, the amount of material transported 
and the distance are thought to be rather small. 

Material transport of much greater magnitude, possibly in part 
dependent on diffusion of a rather different type, is involved in the 
work of staff member John Frantz. Frantz studies the large-scale 
metasomatic, or chemical, processes accompanying the development 
of metamorphic rocks within the Earth. Transport through 
the bulk Earth of the amounts of material required in metamorphic 
processes seems quite beyond the capacity of the diffusion of the 
intragranular sort involved in Muncill's experiments. There is gen- 
eral agreement, however, that in most metasomatism diffusion 
occurs in a thin grain-boundary film of fluid, which receives matter 
being dissolved from a mineral and is itself subjected to con vecti ve- 
ry or tectonically driven transport. The dissolved matter contained 
in this intergranular fluid ultimately reprecipitates or reacts with a 
host rock when, at some later time and possibly quite distant site, 
it encounters appropriate pressure, temperature, and other 
conditions. 

Frantz addresses various aspects of the composition of the 
intergranular supercritical fluids — the solubilities of rock-forming 



106 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

minerals, the ionic behavior of dissolved components, and 
the identities of transition-element complexes in them. During the 
past year, he has studied the Raman spectra of high-temperature, 
high-pressure aqueous fluids, using a specially designed optical cell 
having either sapphire or diamond windows. Working with 
pure water, Frantz has demonstrated the disappearance of tetra- 
hedral bonding with increasing temperature and decreasing densi- 
ty. He notes that the envelope containing the O-H stretch 
frequencies narrows under these conditions, indicating a possible 
decrease in the number of other coordinations of water. In dilute 
aqueous solutions of zinc chloride, he finds that with increase in 
temperature and decrease in density the dominant species changes 
from ZnCl 4 2 ~ to ZnCl 2 , in accord with decrease in the dielectric 
constant of water. He is now attempting to compute association 
constants for these complexes. 

Frantz and others attempting to devise experimental or numeri- 
cal models of metasomatic replacement are acutely aware 
that although the observed scale of this phenomenon in nature often 
implies solution and transport of enormous amounts of dissolved 
matter by infiltrating fluids, there is little direct evidence for, and 
much skepticism about, such large-scale infiltration. Persuasive evi- 
dence that fluid circulation is indeed a phenomenon of major 
importance has recently been obtained, however, by close examina- 
tion of a very small part of an exceedingly rare but ubiquitous 
mineral. 

This evidence comes from graphite found by staff member 
Douglas Rumble in many post-orogenic quartz veins cutting intru- 
sive and metamorphic rocks throughout central New Hampshire. 
Rumble and Thomas Hoering have shown that the ratio of stable 
carbon isotopes in this graphite varies widely between limiting val- 
ues characteristic of the two great crustal reservoirs of carbon — 
biogenic carbonate and biologically reduced carbon. Rumble and 
Hoering propose that (1) metamorphism of shales containing re- 
duced organic matter generates aqueous fluids in which CH 4 > 
C0 2 , (2) metamorphism of argillaceous limestones yields aqueous 
fluids where CH 4 < C0 2 , and (3) precipitation of graphite occurs 
when aqueous fluids with different CH 4 /C0 2 are mixed. This theory 
is consistent with their carbon isotope data, for carbonaceous 
matter in fluids derived from organic shales is relatively poor in 13 C 
and that from carbonate-rich rocks is relatively rich in that 
isotope. One would expect then that the 13 C content of graphite 
precipitated by fortuitous mixing of such fluids would be 
intermediate, as indeed they find to be the case in much of the New 
Hampshire granite examined to date. 

Mineral Physics and Its Application to the Inner Earth 

For many decades, the principal task of the mineralogist was 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 107 

simply to describe and classify physical, chemical, and structural 
properties of natural inorganic crystals. As these data gradually ac- 
cumulated for most species, however, mineralogists increasingly 
sought to identify physical and chemical principles that underlie 
mineral formation and behavior, as well as procedures that might 
lead to predictions of mineral stability conditions and properties 
deep within the Earth. Mineral physics, which has evolved from 
traditional mineralogy during the past two decades, is the study of 
mineralogical problems through the application of principles of con- 
densed-matter physics and chemistry. 

Mineral physics bridges gaps among a number of disciplines. It is 
inevitably linked with traditional fields in earth science, including 
solid-earth geophysics, geochemistry, crystallography, petrology, 
and geodynamics. Close ties also exist with aspects of ceramics re- 
search, materials science, physical chemistry, high-temperature and 
high-pressure studies, and solid-state physics. The range of 
materials studied parallels the diversity of the mineral kingdom it- 
self, including elements, metal alloys, sulfides, halides, layer 
compounds, and zeolites, in addition to rock-forming oxides and sili- 
cates. Experimental work has intensified with the finding of 
new industrial applications — in the manufacture of lasers, high-per- 
formance ceramics, molecular sieves, catalysts, and a variety of 
electronic components. 

The technology of mineral physics, too, is highly modern. Spec- 
troscopic techniques that probe atomic vibrations and elasticity of 
minerals are now coupled with procedures to deduce atomic 
chemistry and structure with ever-increasing precision and spatial 
resolution. Concurrently has come the remarkable development of 
high-pressure and high-temperature apparatus for measuring min- 
eral structures and properties under geologically relevant 
conditions. 

Scientists at the Geophysical Laboratory have been pacesetters 
in mineralogical research since the pioneering studies by Day, Al- 
len, and others in the first decades of this century. Carnegie 
researchers achieved many firsts — the first high-temperature crys- 
tallographic studies by Wyckoff in the 1920s, the first geological ap- 
plications of Raman spectroscopy by Hibben in the 1930s, 
determinations of element partitioning from the Mossbauer effect 
by Virgo in the 1960s, and the attainment of record high static 
pressures by Mao and Bell in the past decade. The Laboratory's 
tradition of leadership continues in today's mineral physics. 

A Polyhedral Approach to Mineral Compression. Of particular 
interest in studying the Earth's interior is the compressibility of 
materials — how a mineral's volume changes with pressure and tem- 
perature, or its "' -T-V equation of state." X-ray diffraction 
experiments on crystals at high pressure reveal the subtle shifts in 
atomic positions that accompany crystal compression, and 



108 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

provide a quantitative measure of the compressibility. Staff mem- 
bers Robert Hazen and Larry Finger have observed that mineral 
compression can be explained by means of the regular arrange- 
ments of cation-anion clusters, or polyhedra, which recur 
repeatedly in often-complex crystal structures. Most mineral 
compression can be described as some combination of 
(1) compression of polyhedra, (2) bending of angles between poly- 
hedra, and (3) intermolecular compression. 

The beryllium aluminosilicates are ideally suited for a combined 
experimental and theoretical study of mineral behavior, thereby ex- 
ploring the polyhedral approach. These minerals are available in 
large, perfect crystals well suited to many different experimental 
procedures; furthermore, all the component atoms are electronically 
simple, thus facilitating computational quantum techniques. 
As part of a continuing study of beryllium minerals, Hazen, Finger, 
and research associate Andrew Au recently determined high- 
pressure crystal structures for a suite of beryllium aluminosilicates. 
They found that beryllium tetrahedra act the same as silicon 
tetrahedra in these structures. Physical properties of several beryl- 
lium minerals may thus be understood in terms of a framework of 
beryllium and silicon tetrahedra. 

Andrew Au extended the polyhedral approach to model the 
elastic properties of the beryllium minerals. He has demonstrated 
that elasticity of the minerals bromellite, corundum, and chrysober- 
yl can be modeled by assigning Active polyhedral elastic constants 
to beryllium tetrahedra and aluminum octahedra. 

Vibrational Spectra and the Properties of Materials. Underlying 
mineral physics research at the Geophysical Laboratory is a 
growing awareness of the dependence of macroscopic properties — 
particularly those that govern geophysical processes — on atomic- 
level interactions. Efforts are under way, therefore, to document 
relationships among mineral structure, bonding, physical proper- 
ties, and stability. Postdoctoral fellow Anne Hofmeister and staff 
member Thomas Hoering have investigated the dependence of heat 
capacity — a fundamental macroscopic property of minerals — to 
atomic vibrations by measuring the infrared spectra of a series of 
beryllium minerals and applying the Kieffer lattice dynamic model 
to the data. For beryllium silicates with known band assignments, 
heat capacities calculated from the observed vibrational frequencies 
matched values determined by calorimetry within a few percent. 

Staff associate Martha Schaefer and Hofmeister used the same 
approach to study vibrational spectra of iron oxides and sulfides. 
Preliminary data on the iron silicate fayalite indicate that magnetic 
contributions to heat capacity may be very important in modeling 
iron-bearing materials. Further investigating the magnetic 
behavior of iron in minerals, Schaefer and David Virgo conducted 
Mossbauer spectroscopic studies of the iron oxide wiistite at high 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 109 

pressure. They observed a gradual phase transition from the para- 
magnetic to the antiferromagnetic state between 100 and 
200 kbar. This magnetic alteration in a major component of the 
Earth's mantle may be critical for understanding the role of iron in 
the Earth. 

Heat capacities of minerals at high pressure are at present 
impossible to measure directly. Hofmeister, visiting investigator Ji- 
an Xu, and colleagues at the Laboratory have successfully 
obtained far-infrared spectra of olivine, silicate spinel, and alkali 
halides held at pressures up to 300 kbar. From the observed shifts 
in vibrational frequencies, they have deduced that heat capacity 
decreases linearly with pressure in the magnesium-iron silicate, 
olivine. Values for the Earth's adiabatic temperature gradient 
calculated from these olivine data agree with values obtained from 
seismological data, and thus lend credence to the spectroscopic ap- 
proach. 

Laboratory Explorations of the Mantle. The several experimental 
studies of the Earth's transition zone (lying between 400-km 
and 670-km depth) and lower mantle can be viewed as a compre- 
hensive investigation at high pressure of the broad system FeO- 
Fe 2 03-MgO-CaO-Al 2 03-Si02. The experiments are leading to deter- 
minations of cation coordination, phase transitions, density 
as a function of pressure, and the Gruneisen parameter, and are 
complemented by theoretical studies of molecular bonding and lat- 
tice dynamics of mantle minerals. 

Of fundamental importance in mantle geochemistry is the ques- 
tion of the bulk composition of the transition zone. Seismic studies 
provide observational data on various properties of the region and 
how they change with depth. Attempts to satisfy the seismic data 
in mineralogical models have shown extreme sensitivity to 
variations in composition. Thus, laboratory determinations of the 
pressure-volume relations of candidate materials promise to set val- 
uable constraints on the possible composition of the region. 

In three separate studies, Ji-an Xu, Ho-kwang Mao, and Peter 
Bell have determined pressure-volume relations in the garnet 
phases grossularite (Ca 3 Al 2 Si30i2), almandite (Fe 3 Al 2 Si30i 2 ), and an- 
dradite (Ca 3 Fe 2 Si 3 12 ) at pressures to 400 kbar. The experiments 
were performed with the diamond-anvil, high-pressure cell 
developed at the Laboratory (Year Book 83, pp. 74-77). Pressure 
was transmitted to the samples through a quasihydrostatic solid 
argon medium, through which x-ray diffraction measurements of 
unusually high resolution and precision were possible. The new 
data — the first obtained on mantle minerals at the higher pres- 
sures — are being analyzed to determine the roles of calcium, alumi- 
num, and ferric iron in garnet and thus to set constraints for 
possible transition-zone composition. Meanwhile, the same investi- 
gators also examined phase transitions in the scheelite structure at 



110 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

high pressure. Results of these studies, along with infrared 
and Raman spectra in olivine measured by Hofmeister, Xu, and 
colleagues and postdoctoral fellow Russell Hemley, are being used 
in developing models of the mantle. 

Experimental data on the deep-mantle oxide minerals CaO, (Mg, 
Fe)0, and A1 2 3 were obtained in a study by postdoctoral 
fellow Pascal Richet with Mao and Bell, also at quasihydrostatic 
pressures (to 1 Mbar). An expected transition in CaO was 
observed at 650 kbar, reversed equilibrium was demonstrated, and 
the equation of state in the higher pressure phase determined; re- 
sults compared well with the theoretical calculations of Hemley. 
Compressibility data for the other two minerals were obtained to 
500 kbar. The work extends the laboratory data forming 
an essential base for models of the deep mantle. 

Computational Quantum Chemistry. Experimental studies are 
complemented by computational quantum chemistry, which has led 
to predictions from first principles of mineral structure, stability, 
and physical properties. Larry Finger, collaborating with Gerald V. 
Gibbs of Virginia Tech, has calculated optimum interatomic 
distances for a variety of ions and coordinations. Their theoretical 
results matched the experimental data obtained by many 
researchers from x-ray crystallographic analysis of mineral struc- 
tures. Finger and Gibbs then calculated bonded radii from the theo- 
retical charge distributions and found that radii of anions 
were much smaller than most workers had previously estimated. 
Further, these radii were affected by the cation, as well 
as the anion, coordination — an unexpected result. Extension of 
these results could provide additional information needed to predict 
mineral properties under conditions of the inner Earth. 

Minerals between the transition zone and the core-mantle bound- 
ary (in a range of pressures from 225 kbar to 1.5 Mbar) are 
believed to be confined in major components to the FeO-MgO-Si0 2 
portion of the system. In an important complement to the previous 
experimental data of Mao and Bell, Russell Hemley and colleagues 
at Harvard have employed another computational quantum 
technique — the electron gas method — to model equations of state, 
lattice dynamics, and elastic properties of such materials. 
Their results predicted the predominance of a silicate perovskite 
structure (MgSi0 3 ) in the lower mantle. The calculations employed 
a first-principles, parameter-free model including lattice dynamics; 
results were extended beyond 1 Mbar at temperatures of 
298, 1000, and 2500K including the volume equation of state for 
silicate perovskite. Similar calculations were performed for 
the component oxides MgO and Si0 2 . The pressure dependence of 
thermal expansion of MgO, an essential quantity for geophysical 
models of the deep Earth, was also calculated. Director Yoder 
writes, "these studies represent a pioneering application of first- 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 111 

principles theory for understanding fundamental properties of high- 
pressure mineral phases." Hemley's work complements the 
Laboratory's experimental studies of the same systems at high 
pressure in late years, as well as Richet's recent study of 
compression in calcium oxide. 

The Approach to the Earth's Core. Experiments at still higher 
pressures require the most advanced state-of-the-art technology, 
much of it developed at the Geophysical Laboratory. During the 
past year, investigators Ho-kwang Mao, Peter Bell, and Kenneth 
Goettel extended the maximum achievable static pressures for rou- 
tine experimentation to the range of 2-3 Mbar. Although 
pressures beyond 1.8 Mbar had previously been sustained, calibra- 
tion techniques for the higher pressures depended on calculation of 
the stress field. Mao et al. employed new spectroscopy techniques 
involving diode-array imaging detectors to make calibrated 
pressure measurements to 2.5 Mbar using the familiar ruby-fluores- 
cence scale. 

The ruby scale was itself calibrated to above 2 Mbar by Xu, Mao, 
and Bell by measuring the volume equations of state of gold, 
copper, silver, and tantalum in the diamond-anvil apparatus and by 
cross-referencing data for these metals known from shock- 
wave experiments. 

In further work toward experimentation at core pressures, the 
Geophysical Laboratory workers developed a micro-focus Raman 
spectroscopy system to explore the Raman shift behavior of dia- 
mond itself. (In the high-pressure apparatus, diamonds serve as 
windows and as anvils for squeezing the sample.) By calibrating the 
Raman shift with pressure, the investigators obtained a basis for 
mapping out the stress field within the diamonds under high pres- 
sure. The resulting three-dimensional stress distributions will be 
used in conjunction with finite-element design analysis to 
attain design improvements for generating still higher pressures. 

Andrew Jephcoat, with Mao and Bell, has conducted experiments 
studying the equations of state of metallic Fe, Si, and FeS 2 
to pressures of roughly 1 Mbar. The object was to obtain pressure- 
density relations for comparison with seismic observations. 
The effort is part of an extended program to determine which iron- 
rich compositions are compatible with seismic data from the core. 
Results of the new experiments, done under quasihydrostatic condi- 
tions, compare well with earlier shock- wave data. 

Toward Understanding Earthquakes 

The members of the seismology group at DTM have for some 
years led in developing borehole strainmeters — instruments which, 
when emplaced in subsurface rock, are capable of detecting 
and recording minute changes in earth deformation over extended 



112 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

time. Today, strainmeter data are proving of extreme interest in 
helping increase understanding of earthquakes. 

The first borehole strainmeters were developed in the 1960s by 
Selwyn Sacks of DTM and Dale Evertson of the University of Tex- 
as at Austin. DTM engineers and technicians — Michael Seemann, 
Glenn Poe, and John Doak — have made critical contributions over 
the years to the design of the instrument and its associated 
electronics. The strainmeter is essentially a resiliant, liquid-filled 
tube, which is cemented to rock at the foot of a borehole 
reaching 200-400 meters beneath the surface. Changes in rock 
deformation as small as one part in 10 11 can be detected. The in- 
strument has uniform sensitivity to strain over a wide range (from 
zero frequency to several hertz). Prototype versions were 
tested on the DTM campus, and the first deployment in an active 
seismic area (Matsushiro, Japan) proved successful. 

Since then, nets of DTM-built strainmeters have been emplaced 
in several areas of major earthquake activity around the world. 
Staff members Selwyn Sacks and Alan Linde have worked closely 
with scientists abroad interested in the strainmeter as a possible 
aid to earthquake prediction. In each of the several installations to 
date, scientifically useful data has already been used to study earth- 
quakes and the Earth's crust, and to identify processes where 
stress is redistributed in active tectonic regions. 

The initial Matsushiro installation, for example, led to information 
on seismic waves and permanent deformation caused by small, local 
earthquakes. Use of the strainmeter data together with data from a 
DTM broadband seismograph at the same site, enabled investiga- 
tors to improve knowledge of the exact location and physical prop- 
erties of nearby earthquakes. Meanwhile, several instruments were 
installed in a South African gold mine, more than 3 kilometers 
below the surface. Many strain steps were recorded, which were 
shown to be related by simple elasticity to the sizes of the 
corresponding earthquakes. 

In 1980, not long after the installation of instruments at seven 
sites in the region, an eruption occurred of the volcano Hekla in 
southern Iceland. All instruments recorded strain changes. These 
were used to provide a model of the mechanism for the eruption 
and recharge of the magma chamber beneath the volcano. 
Subsequently, a series of unusual strain signals have been observed 
at the site in Iceland closest to the transform fault linking 
segments of the great mid- Atlantic ocean ridge. Further strain 
data, and perhaps subsequent seismic events in the region, may un- 
lock understanding of these signals. The instruments continue to 
record data continuously. 

A similar series of unusual strain signals was later observed at a 
site in the western part of Tohoku in northern Honshu. The 
signals appeared to be related to a large earthquake occurring in 
the Japan Sea, though evaluation of the signals as possible 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 

precursors of the earthquake awaits more data. The station was one 
of three installed in cooperation with Tohoku University, 
whose personnel also obtain regular measurements of seismograph, 
extensometer, and tilt data. 

Data from the southern Honshu net (installed and operated by 
the Japanese Meteorological Agency) have allowed the identification 
of slow earthquakes, or "slowquakes" — events resembling earth- 
quakes except over much longer time periods. A major slowquake 
took place immediately after the Izu-Oshima earthquake of 1978, 
south of Tokyo. Strain data from three nearby strainmeters allowed 
DTM scientists and their Japanese colleagues to determine 
the character of the slowquake. Knowledge of that additional fault 
movement made it possible to explain the observed vertical 
motions in the Izu peninsula. Later, over a 30-month interval in 
1978-1980, a significant tectonic event occurred nearby. Slow strain 
changes were detected at many stations, and calculations 
showed that this very-slow event had a cumulative size equivalent 
to a massive (magnitude 8) earthquake. 

A number of strainmeters have been installed in California, 
mainly in areas of high earthquake probability along the San An- 
dreas Fault. (Collaborating with the DTM group are workers from 
the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of California, San 



113 




Recent borehole strainmeter installation in California. The sen- 
sing apparatus, connected by wire to recording instruments on 
the surface, will be lowered and cemented into subsurface rock. 
Volume deformations of the instrument will provide data on sub- 
surface strain over extended periods. Seismologists at the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism have developed these in- 
struments and are using them to study characteristics and possi- 
ble precursors of earthquakes. 



114 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

Diego.) Instruments in the Parkfield area have recently shown a 
number of strain changes, days in length. These seem to 
be evidence of slow events on the fault, and have been followed by 
small nearby earthquakes. 

A valuable innovation at some of the California sites is the use of 
recorders capable of recording high-frequency signals. Although the 
strainmeter devices were previously capable of sensing such 
signals, their recording would have required massive amounts of 
magnetic tape. The new devices are triggered so that they record 
only when a disturbance is present; at other times, the data 
telemetry system provides a low sampling rate. The recorded data, 
at frequencies as high as 100 hertz over long periods, will 
improve the present ability using the local seismograph net to de- 
termine seismic moment and other properties. Small strain steps 
will also be detectable, thus supplying a further measurement for 
determining source properties. Comparable improvements are 
being introduced in Iceland, where data has been recorded only at 
the local sites, on chart paper. 

The DTM programs in Japan, Iceland, and California are continu- 
ing, owing in large part to the active collaboration of investigators 
in these countries. Meanwhile, a net of seven instruments is being 
installed in the central region of Peru, in cooperation with 
the Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP). The area being monitored 
has a history of large and damaging earthquakes, along with gener- 
ally high seismicity. The strain data will complement data 
from a new seismograph net, also established as a result of collabo- 
ration between DTM and IGP. Data are telemetered to a 
computer in Lima, so that seismic activity can be monitored instan- 
taneously. Data from the two systems — the strainmeter and 
seismograph — should contribute to understanding of the oceanic 
Nazca plate subduction beneath the South American continent. (See 
page 86.) 

Another strainmeter net is being installed in mainland China, 
where interest in earthquake prediction is strong. The effort is in 
collaboration with the State Seismological Bureau of the People's 
Republic of China. Data should provide an opportunity to study 
large intraplate earthquakes — phenomena that occur only rarely in 
the United States. 

The strainmeter program has added to our understanding of 
earthquakes and has enabled scientists to identify previously unrec- 
ognized processes leading to stress redistribution in the Earth. 
Strainmeter measurements taken at depths of hundreds of meters 
are far more reliable than earlier deformation measurements by 
short-baseline techniques at the surface. The new projects in Peru 
and China, along with the improvements in data acquisition, 
should add significantly to the growing bank of high-quality data 
needed for frontier investigations of earthquakes and stress redis- 
tribution. 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 115 

An On-Land Spreading Event? Last year, staff member Paul 
Silver and postdoctoral fellow Tetsu Masuda of DTM proposed that 
two earthquakes in California and Baja California were manifesta- 
tions of episodic on-land spreading (Year Book 88 , pp. 90-92). In 
spreading, material at the surface slowly moves in opposite direc- 
tions away from a center of spreading, probably as a result of ma- 
terial upwelling from below. Spreading is a common phenomenon 
along the midocean ridges, but only two on-land centers of active 
spreading are generally acknowledged — in Iceland, and in the Afar 
(eastern Africa); these represent rare opportunities to observe the 
spreading process in detail. 

Now, Silver and research associate Nathalie Valette-Silver have 
collected data from various sources, investigating whether certain 
characteristics were present in the Cerro Prieto region near the 
U.S. -Mexico border, between the centers of the two earlier earth- 
quakes. They examined evidence of four conditions, each of which 
should have been present if indeed on-land spreading was 
taking place: (1) increased seismic activity, (2) crustal extension in 
the assumed spreading direction, (3) terrain subsidence, and (4) a 
thermal event presumably reflecting the movement of magma. A 
large quantity of past observational data are available, primarily 
because of the presence at Cerro Prieto of a geothermal 
field, which has been closely monitored since 1970. 

Silver and Valette- Silver's study indicated that all four character- 
istics were present. (1) Transform faults just to the north 
and south of Cerro Prieto failed within eight months of each other, 
(2) geodetic measurements confirm that the land extended 
in the assumed spreading direction, (3) leveling data and measure- 
ments of changes in the gravity field are consistent with 
technically induced subsidence, and (4) the temperatures of nearly 
all the 27 wells in the geothermal field registered a rise of 
about 3°C between the times of the two earthquakes — the kind of 
signature that would be expected from the movement of magma. 

The results also suggest applications in understanding the earth- 
quake process. For example, it is not known whether the 
movement of magma causes transform fault events or vice versa. 
The fact that this thermal event preceded at least one of 
the earthquakes studied, suggests that the movement of magma 
may come first. If so, then the seismic activity in such regions may 
be predictable from thermal evidence. 

Biogeochemistry 

The program in biogeochemistry at the Geophysical Laboratory 
dates back to 1953, when Philip Abelson discovered that many fos- 
sils contain amino acids, which survived for millions of years 
apparently protected, for example, by the dense structure of an 




Andrew Gize at the Geophysical Laboratory studies 
organic material associated with ore deposits. Shown 
here is a droplet of bitumen, now thermally altered to a 
fine mosaic texture, in a vein from the Carlin gold de- 
posit, Nevada. The outer rim is interpreted as an oxi- 
dation reaction, indicative of the oxidation state of 
surrounding fluids during thermal alteration. Such in- 
sights into ore solutions can be valuable for understand- 
ing the process of ore formation. 



organism's shell. More recent research in biogeochemistry has in- 
vestigated the chemistry of these amino acids, determining their 
stability and obtaining correlations between laboratory tests and 
fossil data. A related line of study has emphasized the mineral- 
ization of organic materials — the growth of crystals of carbonate, 
phosphate, sulfate, iron oxide, and other products, to attain the 
fossil forms now seen. In April 1985 the Geophysical Laboratory 
hosted an international conference, Biomineralization Processes 
and the Fossil Record, which focused on both modern and fossil or- 
ganisms. Participants explored the role of the organic matrix both 
as a template for mineralization and as a preservative of fossil 
biominerals. 

The same topics are seen in much of the current research of the 
biogeochemistry group at the Laboratory. Staff member P. Edgar 
Hare and Heinz Lowenstam, visiting scholar from Caltech 
and once Hare's mentor there, are studying shell of the brachiopod 
Lingula, which is hardened by the presence of carbonate apatite, a 
mineral found also in vertebrate bones and teeth. Lingula, 
a still-extant organism whose ancestors are found throughout 600 
million years of the fossil record, is of particular interest 
because its biochemistry is a mixture of invertebrate and vertebrate 
processes. 

Meanwhile, Michael Alcorn of Harvard and Hare have been 
studying the preservation of collagen and other proteins in an ex- 
traordinary collection of 2000-year-old human bones from the Mid- 
dle East. The specimens have been exceptionally well preserved 
during long burial in the dry desert. Levels of nitrogen and amino 
acid concentrations approach those in modern material, and 
although the bone proteins show some breakdown, some of the 



THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 117 

original organic matrix is preserved and may prove comparable to 
modern bone. An exciting aspect is the application of immunological 
techniques in studying individual proteins; in preliminary results, 
Alcorn and Hare have identified the presence of proteins 
in the fossil specimens that react to the same antibodies as the 
analogous proteins in modern bone. Study of the detailed protein 
chemistry of ancient materials thus may be possible. 

In his continuing study of the chemistry of fossil bones, postdoc- 
toral fellow Thomas Stafford is developing new techniques 
for isolating peptides from proteins that have been altered by dia- 
genetic processes. He is also addressing the carbon and nitrogen 
isotopic compositions of fossil proteins, which can be related to an 
ancient animal's diet and environment. In fossil Bison bones from 
sediments 500-13,000 years old in the Texas panhandle, he finds 
that the relative carbon isotope ratio 5 13 C decreases with 
increasing geologic age. Stafford believes that this is evidence of a 
change in diet, from grasses having one kind of photosynthetic 
pathway (the C 3 type) to another (the C 4 type). The implied change 
from a cooler, wetter climate to a hotter, drier one is compatible 
with sedimentary evidence representing the last 13,000 years. 

Geophysical Laboratory staff members Marilyn Estep and Thom- 
as Hoering are lending their experience in stable isotope work in 
collaborative work with investigators at the Department of Plant 
Biology (see pp. 47-48). Isotopic measurements are also proving 
useful for identifying sources of organic matter in estuaries. Pre- 
doctoral fellow L. A. Cifuentes (University of Delaware) and staff 
member Marilyn Estep are studying organic material suspended in 
the Delaware Bay, investigating the roles of the various riverine, 
sewage, marsh, and marine sources. Cifuentes and Estep observed 
seasonal variations in isotope ratios, which reflected seasonal 
patterns of river run-off, primary productivity, and remineraliza- 
tion. Fluctuations in 8 13 C occurred independently of those in 8 15 N. 
Nitrogen ratios were strongly influenced by springtime nitrification 
upriver; the phytoplankton bloom in spring of 1984 and 1985 had a 
high 8 15 N, as a result of phytoplankton uptake of isotopically heavy 
nitrogen in the ammonia pool remaining after nitrification. 
This research is important in its coupling of biological and environ- 
mental factors with isotopic measurements. 

A Quest for the Molecules of Ancient Life. A major objective in 
studying the nature of early life is to isolate a molecular fossil — a 
molecule from a fossil or sediment whose structure can be traced 
backwards over time (applying known processes) to determine the 
exact nature of ancient cell material. The only likely molecular fos- 
sils that persist for great lengths of time are hydrocarbons. 

For over two decades, staff member Thomas Hoering has sought 
to isolate molecular fossils in rocks of widely varying age. A 
promising raw material is kerogen, a high-molecular- weight, insolu- 




The biogeochemistry group at the Geophysical Laboratory. 
From left to right: P. E. Hare, H. Lowenstam, Marilyn L. Es- 
tep, T. W. Stafford, Jr., Thomas C. Hoering, Andrew Gize. 



ble material that is the primary form of organic matter buried in 
sediments. Kerogen contains molecular fossils that are bonded 
tightly into its structure and are relatively free of contamination. 

Hydrous pyrolysis is a simple method for mildly breaking down 
kerogen. First, kerogen is isolated from rocks and carefully 
extracted with solvents to remove potential contaminants. The 
kerogen is then heated in a pressure vessel in the presence of ex- 
cess liquid water for several days at 330°C. During the past year, 
Thomas Hoering and Vivek Navale, visiting investigator from the 
University of Maryland, carried out hydrous pyrolysis of rocks 500- 
3300 million years in age; the investigators analyzed the hydrocar- 
bon products for five classes of molecular fossils. 

Small amounts of such compounds could be obtained in the 
younger samples, but the amounts obtainable decreased steadily 
with age in older rocks, even in sediments having well-preserved 
minerals. Thus the amounts and kinds of hydrocarbons that could 
be isolated from kerogens older than 1600 million years approached 
those found in blank and control runs. The most common 
molecular fossils observed were normal hydrocarbons; isoprenoid 
and triterpane hydrocarbons were found in only a few cases. The 
search for sterane hydrocarbons gave at best ambiguous results. 
Organic molecules appear to be too labile and reactive to 
persist for longer times, even under the best of circumstances. 



Professional Activities 



The Educational Role. In Year Book 4.9, Vannevar Bush, 
then president, made a careful assessment of the Institution's post- 
World War II role. He noted that Carnegie staff members were 
fortunate in not being distracted by the many duties that are inev- 
itably a part of the operation of a great university. But he also 
noted a key distinction that was not so favorable. While university 
professors necessarily came into daily contact with young minds, he 
wrote, Carnegie scientists, if they so desired, could avoid all such 
contact. 

The fellowship program that Bush initiated in the late 1940s was 
partly designed to correct this potential isolation. But it was also 
designed to provide advanced training for young scientists. Today, 
augmented by grants from the Carnegie Corporation (a program 
begun during Caryl Haskins's presidency) and other sources, the 
Institution's educational role is one of its most important and satis- 
fying efforts. About 130 individuals served in the Institution's de- 
partments as postdoctoral fellows, research associates, predoctoral 
fellows, and students during the report year. 

Individuals are chosen with care, with an eye to their indepen- 
dence and self-motivation. They are often selected because of the 
significance of their research interests and how these interests com- 
plement those of the staff members. In astronomy alone, as we 
have seen, contributions by fellows this year ranged over all areas 
of the Institution's leading work; already recognized throughout the 
profession are the results of Kirk Borne's numerical simulations of 
interacting galaxies, Rogier Windhorst's ultradeep radio observa- 
tions of extremely distant galaxies, Wendy Freedman's photometry 
of stars in nearby galaxies, Deidre Hunter's work on star formation 
in irregular galaxies, Belva Campbell's on young stellar objects, 
and Nicholas Suntzeff s on the chemical compositions of old, evolved 
stars. Postdoctoral fellows and grant-supported associates in the 
earth sciences and at the Departments of Embryology and Plant 
Biology are making comparable contributions. 

In the departments, all scholars are treated as peers; fellows and 
research associates are encouraged to participate fully in seminars 
and symposia. As a result, they gain not only scientific knowledge 
and experience, but self-confidence. When they have finished their 
tours at Carnegie (which last generally from one to three years), 
many emerge as leaders in their respective fields. Often, they be- 
come serious candidates for permanent staff appointments at the 
Institution. During the report year, for example, three of four va- 
cant staff positions were filled, after exhaustive searches, by cur- 
rent or former postdoctoral fellows and research associates. 




Postdoctoral fellows Nick Suntzeff, Wendy Freedman, Belva 
Campbell, Rogier Windhorst, and Edmond Giraud at the Obser- 
vatories. 



Seminars and Symposia. Attendance at scientific meetings is a 
requisite for anyone seriously pursuing a scientific career. Staff 
members and fellows attend and give papers at many conferences 
each year. They also deliver invited lectures at select gatherings. 
During the report year, these activities took Carnegie scientists to 
New Zealand, the People's Republic of China, Israel, Costa Rica, 
Italy, Japan, Canada, Switzerland, the U.S.S.R., The Netherlands, 
Greece, West Germany, Sweden, Spain, and Bolivia. 

In addition to attending conferences and giving papers, Carnegie 
scientists often serve as conference organizers. This year, for ex- 
ample, Richard Pagano of Embryology was the chairman of the 
1985 Gordon Conference on Lipid Metabolism. Joseph Gall, also of 
Embryology, organized the 44th Annual Symposium of the Society 
of Developmental Biology. Vera Rubin of DTM chaired a Space 
Telescope Working Group on Galaxies and Clusters. Arthur Gross- 
man of Plant Biology was co-organizer of an international confer- 
ence on Chlamydomonas, and P. Edgar Hare and Thomas Hoering 
of the Geophysical Laboratory organized a Carnegie-NSF confer- 
ence on biomineralization. 



Local Seminars. Each department holds seminars, usually once a 
week, where staff members, fellows, and invited guests discuss 
work in progress. These seminars, while presented at an advanced 
level, are generally attended by all staff, and so provide forums for 
the interdisciplinary exchange of information. At DTM seminars, 
for example, astronomers, geochemists, and seismologists join in 
discussions. 

Occasionally, a department will sponsor a day-long or week-long 
workshop or symposium devoted to a particular topic of research. 
The Department of Embryology hosts an all-day seminar annually. 
This year, its eighth annual minisymposium, "Plants, Genes, Devel- 



PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES 121 

opment," was organized by staff associate Sondra Lazarowitz and 
graduate student Barbara Kirschner. It was held in November. 

The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and the Geophysical 
Laboratory jointly hosted a two-day workshop on the Earth's man- 
tle on November 20-21. Organized by Paul Silver and Richard 
Carlson of DTM and Peter Bell of the Geophysical Lab, the work- 
shop was attended by leading investigators from several universi- 
ties. 

The Geophysical Laboratory continued its tradition of hosting meet- 
ings of the Washington Organic Geochemistry Colloquium, the Wash- 
ington Crystal Colloquium, and the Penologists' Club. The 
Department of Embryology again hosted the evening Disease of the 
Month Club. The Department of Plant Biology continues its vigorous 
joint seminar program with plant biologists at Stanford University. 

Leadership Roles. Carnegie staff were active this year in a vari- 
ety of professional societies. They served on NSF, NIH, NAS, 
USD A, and Space Telescope committees and panels, sat on review 
boards, and were members of various editorial boards. They served 
in advisory positions to universities and other research organiza- 
tions, and they were members of Ph.D. thesis committees. Thomas 
Hoering of the Geophysical Laboratory, for example, served on the 
thesis committees for four advanced degree candidates. Robert Ha- 
zen, also of Geophysical, is on the editorial board of four journals. 

Occasionally a scientist devotes more time than he or she ordi- 
narily would to outside activities, as when an important new pro- 
gram is being initiated. DTM's David James and Selwyn Sacks, for 
example, are heavily involved in the Program for Array Seismic 
Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCAL) (see pp. 97- 
99). Felix Chayes of the Geophysical Laboratory has devoted a 
great deal of time to the International Geological Correlation Pro- 
ject (IGCP), which is designed to systematize the electronic stor- 
age, use, and retrieval of penological data. He served this year as 
chairman of the new Subcommission on Data Bases for Petrology of 
the International Union of Geological Sciences. He was organizer of 
new IGCP Project 239, which conducts pilot studies, and he orga- 
nized and ran a meeting of IGCP Project 163 — IGBA, held in Lis- 
bon, Portugal, in September. 

Often, as a scientist's status increases, so too do his or her out- 
side professional activities. This is reflected in the myriad activities 
of the Institution's directors. Donald Brown, director of the De- 
partment of Embryology, for example, served this year on visiting 
committees and advisory boards to the Whitehead Institute, the 
Scientific Review Board of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 
and Princeton University's Department of Molecular Biology, 
among others. He is also a member of the jury for the Passano and 
Lasker awards. George Wetherill, director of DTM, also served 
this year on two award committees — for the G. P. Merrill and J. L. 



122 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

Smith awards. In addition, he is president of the Meteoritical Soci- 
ety and a member of the NAS Space Science Board and the 
NASA-IAU International Halley Watch Steering Committee. 

At the Observatories, director George Preston serves on the 
Space Telescope Advisory Committee of the Space Telescope Sci- 
ence Institute. New activities of Hatten Yoder, director of the Geo- 
physical Laboratory, include membership on Harvard's Ad Hoc 
Committee on Geological Science, membership on the Tellers Com- 
mittee of the National Academy of Sciences, and service on the 
American Philosophical Society's Membership Committee. Plant 
Biology director Winslow Briggs, who last year was designated a 
Senior United States Scientist by the Alexander von Humboldt 
Foundation, spent the year in Freiburg, West Germany. 

Margaret L. A. Mac Vicar, vice president of the Institution, is co- 
chair of the AAAS National Council for Science and Technology 
Education. She was also this year appointed a member of the Advi- 
sory Council, Carnegie Corporation Forum on Education and the 
Economy, and she was elected a trustee of the Research Corpora- 
tion of America and a member of the Board of Directors, the 
Exxon Corporation. 

Losses, Gains, Honors .... 



The death this year of Aaron David Singer, executive officer of 
the Geophysical Laboratory, was a severe blow to his many friends 
and colleagues. Singer began his career with Carnegie in 1935, 
when, at the age of 16, he became clerk and assistant computer at 
DTM. In the evenings, he took accounting classes at nearby Colum- 
bus University, eventually earning his bachelor's and master's de- 
grees. In 1953, Philip Abelson convinced Singer — then in private 
industry — to join the Geophysical Lab as office manager. For the 
next 32 years, until he died of cancer on March 13, 1985, Dave kept 
things running at the Laboratory. 

John Rock, a former research associate at the Department of 
Embryology (from the mid-1930s until 1945), died on December 5, 
1984, at the age of 94. Rock was a noted gynecologist and obstetri- 
cian who played a key role in the development of the birth control 
pill. He was, in 1944, the first scientist to fertilize a human egg in a 
test tube. 

Resigning from the Board of Trustees this year were Franklin D. 
Murphy and Frank Stanton. Stanton was a trustee since 1963 and 
chairman from 1977 until 1979. Best known for his leading role in 
the professional broadcast field, he was for 25 years (1945-1971) 
president of CBS, Inc. At the meeting of the Carnegie Board in 
May, Dr. Stanton was designated trustee emeritus. 

Two staff members — Douglas Fambrough and Typhoon Lee — re- 



LOSSES, GAINS, HONORS 123 

signed during the report year. Fambrough came to the Department 
of Embryology in 1969, shortly after receiving his Ph.D. at the Cal- 
ifornia Institute of Technology. At Carnegie, he and his colleagues 
carried out the first critical biochemical analysis of the acetylcholine 
receptors on cell surfaces that mediate nerve-muscle interactions. 
He also explored the metabolism of other cell suface proteins, most 
recently the sodium pump. On July 1, 1985, Fambrough joined the 
biology department of Johns Hopkins University, where a neuro- 
biology institute is in the planning stage. The Department's conso- 
lation in losing him, writes Donald Brown, is that he will be only 
ten minutes away. 

The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism is not so fortunate. 
Typhoon Lee took a temporary leave of absence from DTM last 
year to establish an isotope geochemistry laboratory at the Insti- 
tute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. This year, 
Lee decided to remain in Taiwan, his native country, as an Acade- 
mia staff member. 

Several members of Carnegie's support staff retired at the end of 
the report year. John Doak, electronics research specialist, worked 
at DTM for 38 years before retiring in June. His skills proved inva- 
luable in the development of mass spectrometric and seismology in- 
strumentation. Harvey Moore, building engineer at the Geophysical 
Laboratory, retired in June after seventeen years. 

At Embryology, Thomas Malooly, business manager for nineteen 
years, and Betty Phebus, accountant for sixteen years, retired this 
year. Embryology laboratory assistant Virgina Hicks, who gave 
twenty years of service to the department, and custodian Thomas 
Miller, who gave fifteen years, also retired at the end of the report 
year. At the Observatories, draftsperson Charles Hartwick retired 
after seven years of service. 

Gains 

Three new trustees were elected to the Carnegie Board in May: 
William F. Kieschnick, Gerald D. Laubach, and Sandra M. Faber. 
William F. Kieschnick, president and chief executive officer of the 
Atlantic Richfield Company, is currently a director of the American 
Federation for Aging Research, chairman of the board of the Mu- 
seum of Contemporary Art, a fellow of the Aspen Institute for Hu- 
manistic studies, and a trustee of the California Institute of 
Technology. He is also on Rice University's Board of Governors 
and received in 1981 the University's Distinguished Alumni Award. 
(He graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Rice in 1947.) In 1981, Kies- 
chnick was a member of the advisory committee of the White 
House Conference on Aging. 

Gerald D. Laubach is president of Pfizer Inc. He joined the com- 
pany in 1950 with a newly earned Ph.D. in organic chemistry from 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Laubach is a director of 



124 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

the CIGNA Corporation of Philadelphia, the Millipore Corporation 
of Bedford, Massachusetts, the National Association of Manufactur- 
ers, and the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. He is a 
member of the Rockefeller University Council and of the Polytech- 
nic Corporation Board. He recently served on the President's Com- 
mission on Industrial Competitiveness. He received the 1985 
Palladium Medal from the Societie de Chimie Industrielle and a 
(New York) Mayor's Award for Science and Technology. 

Sandra Faber, an astronomer and professor at the University of 
California's Lick Observatory, holds a B.S. from Swarthmore Col- 
lege, and a Ph.D. from Harvard University. From 1970 until 1971 
she was a fellow at Carnegie's Department of Terrestrial Magne- 
tism. She is a newly elected (1985) member of the National Acad- 
emy of Sciences, a member of the National Science Foundation's 
astronomy advisory panel, and a member and former chair of the 
Visiting Committee to the Space Telescope Science Institute. In 
1978 she received a Bart J. Bok prize. Last year, Science Digest 
named her as one of the 100 best American scientists under the age 
of 40. In 1986 she is slated to receive the Dannie Heineman Prize 
for Astrophysics from the American Astronomical Society and 
American Institute of Physics. 

The Institution also gained five new staff members this year, two 
of them at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. John Graham 
earned his Ph.D. from the Australian National University. He has 
worked in both Galactic and extragalactic astronomy and is espe- 
cially interested in problems of star formation. Before coming to 
Carnegie, he was for sixteen years an astronomer at the Cerro To- 
lolo Inter- American Observatory in Chile. He is currently vice 
president of the American Astronomical Society. 

Steven Shirey conducts trace-element and isotopic studies in in- 
vestigations of the origin and evolution of the crust and mantle. He 
received his B.A. from Dartmouth, his M.S. from the University of 
Massachusetts, Amherst, and his Ph.D. (in geochemistry in 1984) 
from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Shirey 
was a 1984 DTM research associate. 

Steven McKnight, new staff member at the Department of Em- 
bryology, is interested in the signals that control protein-encoding 
genes of the herpes simplex virus. He received his Ph.D. from the 
University of Virginia and then spent four years (1977-1981) as a 
postdoctoral fellow and research associate at the Department of 
Embryology. Before returning to Carnegie as a staff member, he 
worked at the Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. 

Joining Carnegie's Department of Plant Biology as staff member 
this year is physiological ecologist Christopher Field. Field received 
his A.B. from Harvard and his Ph.D. from Stanford. Before coming 
to Carnegie, he spent three years as an assistant professor at the 
University of Utah. Field is currently conducting research in tropi- 
cal rainforests of Mexico and China. 



LOSSES, GAINS, HONORS 125 

Gregory E. Muncill, a 1984 Geophysical Laboratory postdoctoral 
fellow, was appointed this year as the Laboratory's W. M. Keck 
Foundation Earth Sciences Research Scholar, a three-year position 
that was made possible by a grant from the W. M. Keck Founda- 
tion. Muncill earned his B.S. degree from the University of Califor- 
nia, San Diego, and the Ph.D. from the Pennsylvania State 
University. He is particularly interested in the chemical evolution 
of igneous systems. 

Two new appointments were made this year at the Institution's 
administrative offices. Cady Canapp joined the P Street staff as ad- 
ministrator for personnel and employee benefits, and Greg Silsbee 
was appointed grants administrator. Both positions are newly cre- 
ated. 

Honors 

The honors garnered each year by staff members, fellows, and 
former staff reflect years of hard work and dedication. This is well 
exemplified by the honor bestowed this year on Donald Brown, di- 
rector of the Department of Embryology. On April 3, 1985, in a 
ceremony at Brandeis University, Brown received (with co-recipi- 
ent Robert Letsinger of Northwestern University) the highly cov- 
eted Rosenstiel Medallion. Brown was cited for his pioneering work 
in understanding the development of an organism (the frog-like 
Xenopus) at the molecular level. A previous recipient of the Rosen- 
stiel Medallion was Barbara McClintock. 

Two staff members this year received prestigious awards from 
the National Academy of Sciences. W. Kent Ford of DTM received 
the James Craig Watson Medal for his work in the areas of image 
intensification and galactic dynamics, and Embryology staff mem- 
ber Allan Spradling, together with former staff member Gerald 
Rubin (now at the University of California, Berkeley), received the 
U. S. Steel Foundation Award in Molecular Genetics for developing 
a gene transfer technique in Drosophila. The three received their 
awards at a ceremony at the Academy on April 22, 1985. 

George Wetherill, director of DTM, was doubly honored this 
year. In November 1984, he received the G. K. Gilbert Award of 
the Geological Society of America for distinguished contributions to 
planetary geology. In June 1985, he was awarded a University of 
Chicago Alumni Professional Achievement Citation. 

Bj0rn My sen of the Geophysical Laboratory was elected a mem- 
ber of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, a rare 
honor for an earth scientist. Mysen, a native of Norway, received 
the award in Oslo in May 1985. 

Felix Chayes, another Geophysical staff member, received the 
Krumbein Medal of the International Association of Mathematical 
Geology during the November 1984 meeting of the Geological Soci- 
ety of America. 



126 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

John Frantz of Geophysical was awarded a Carnegie-del Duca 
fellowship for 1985-1986. He is currently spending a year as a visit- 
ing researcher at the Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et 
Geochemiques in Nancy, France. 

A paper published in Organic Geochemistry by Geophysical Lab- 
oratory staff member Thomas Hoering was selected as Best Paper 
of the Year for 1984 by the Organic Geochemistry Division of the 
Geochemical Society. 

Postdoctoral fellow Deidre Hunter of DTM was named the first 
Richard B. Roberts Fellow. She also received the 1984 Robert J. 
Trumpler Award from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Observatories fellow Michael D. Gregg was awarded the 1985 
Dirk Brouwer Memorial Prize by the Yale Astronomy Department. 

Plant Biology postdoctoral fellow Terri Lomax received the P. F. 
Saunders Memorial Award from the American Society of Plant 
Physiologists. She was a 1984 NSF Postdoctoral Fellow in Plant Bi- 
ology. 

Former Department of Embryology staff member Elizabeth 
Ramsey was paid tribute in a Hall of Fame presentation at the 
American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology's 33rd annual clini- 
cal meeting in Washington, D.C. 

Former Plant Biology fellow Jeffrey Palmer, now at the University 
of Michigan, received a Presidential Young Investigator Award. 

John Ferry, former fellow at the Geophysical Lab and now at Johns 
Hopkins University, received the Mineralogical Society of America 
Award for 1985. 

Margaret L. A. Mac Vicar, the Institution's vice president, received 
an honorary degree from Clarkson University in May. 

In October 1984, William R. Hewlett received the Heald Award 
from the Illinois Institute of Technology. In February 1985, he re- 
ceived an honorary doctoral degree from The Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity. Also in February, he received a National Medal of Science from 
President Reagan. 

Edward E. David also received three awards this year: the Scien- 
tist of the Year Award from Research and Development magazine in 
September, the Arthur M. Bueche Medal from the National Academy 
of Engineering in October 1984, and the Delmer S. Fahrney Medal 
from the Franklin Institute in April 1985. 

Crawford Greenewalt was reelected president of the American 
Philosophical Society in April 1985. Edward E. David and William 
Golden were elected councillors. 

Frank Stanton received the first Walter Cronkite Award for Excel- 
lence in Journalism and Telecommunication from Arizona State Uni- 
versity on October 5, 1984. In June 1985 he received an honorary 
doctor of laws degree from Harvard University. 

For his book Making the Future Work, John Diebold received the 
1985 George Washington Medal for Excellence (book category) from 
the Freedom Foundation. 



Bibliography of Published 

Work 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



Reprints of the publications listed below 
can be obtained at no charge from the De- 
partment of Embryology, 115 West Univer- 
sity Parkway, Baltimore, Maryland 21210. 

Donald D. Brown 

Brown, D. D., On the molecular basis of 

gene expression, in Transfer and Expression 
of Eukaryotic Genes, H. S. Ginsberg and H. 
J. Vogel, eds., pp. 3-4, Academic Press, New 
York, 1984. 

Brown, D. D., The role of stable complexes 

that repress and activate eukaryotic genes, 
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 307, 297-299, 
1984. 

Brown, D. D. , and M. S. Schlissel, The mo- 
lecular basis of differential gene expression of 
two 5S RNA genes, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. 
Quant. Biol. 50, in press. 

Schlissel, M., and D. D. Brown, The tran- 
scriptional regulation of Xenopus 5S RNA genes 
in chromatin: the roles of active stable tran- 
scription complexes and histone HI, Cell 37, 
903-913, 1984. 

Setzer, D. R., and D. D. Brown, Formation 

and stability of the 5S RNA transcription com- 
plex, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 2483-2492, 1985. 

Douglas M. Fambrough 

Fambrough, D. M., B. A. Wolitzky, and D. 

W. Pumplin, Developmental and regulatory 
aspects of the sodium- and potassium-ion stim- 
ulated ATPase in avian nerve and muscle, in 
Regulation and Development of Membrane 
Transport Processes, J. S. Graves, ed., pp. 
265-282, John Wiley & Sons, 1984. 

Bayne, E. K., M. J. Anderson, and D. M. 

Fambrough, Extracellular matrix organiza- 
tion in developing muscle: correlation with ace- 
tylcholine receptor aggregates, J. Cell Biol. 
99, 1486-1501, 1984. 

Chiquet, M., and D. M. Fambrough, Chick 

myotendinous antigen. I. A monoclonal anti- 
body as a marker for tendon and muscle mor- 
phogenesis, J. Cell Biol. 98, 1926-1936, 1984. 

Chiquet, M., and D. M. Fambrough, Chick 

myotendinous antigen. II. A novel extracel- 
lular glycoprotein complex consisting of large 
disulfide-linked subunits, /. Cell Biol. 98, 1937- 
1946, 1984. 

Nina V. Fedoroff 

Fedoroff, N., M. Shure, S. Kelly, M. Johns, 

D. Furtek, J. Schiefelbein, and 0. Nelson, Iso- 
lation of Spm controlling elements from maize, 



Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. J>9, 
339-345, 1984. 

. Fedoroff, N., S. Wessler, M. Shure, B. 
Pohlman, J. Messing, D. Furtek, and 0. Nel- 
son, The transposable Ac and Ds elements of 
maize: isolation, structure and utility, in Gen- 
ome Rearrangement, I. Herskowitz and M. 
Simon, eds., pp. 3-12, Alan Liss, New York, 
1984. 

. Week, E., U. Courage, H.-P. Doring, N. 
Fedoroff, and P. Starlinger, Analysis of sh- 
m6233, a mutation induced by the transposable 
element Ds in the sucrose synthetase gene of 
Zea mays, EMBO J. 3, 1713-1716, 1984. 



Joseph G. Gall 

Diaz, M. 0., and J. G. Gall, Giant read- 
through transcription units at the histone loci 
on lampbrush chromosomes of the newt No- 
tophthalmus, Chromosoma (Berl.) 92, 243-253, 
1985. 

Jamrich, M., K. A. Mahon, E. R. Gavis, and 

J. G. Gall, Histone RNA in amphibian oocytes 
visualized by in situ hybridization to meth- 
acrylate-embedded tissue sections, EMBO J. 
3, 1939-1943, 1984. 

Warrior, R., and J. G. Gall, The mitochon- 
drial DN A of Hydra attenuata and Hydra lit- 
toralis consists of two linear molecules, Arch. 
Sci. (Geneve), in press. 



Barbara J. Graves 

Graves, B. J., R. N. Eisenman, and S. L. 

McKnight, Delineation of transcriptional con- 
trol signals within the Moloney Murine Sar- 
coma Virus LTR, Mol. Cell Biol., in press. 

Graves, B. J., S. P. Eisenberg, D. M. Coen, 

and S. L. McKnight, Alternative utilization of 
two regulatory domains within the MSV LTR, 
Mol. Cell Biol., in press. 

Mitrick Johns 

Fedoroff, N., M. Shure, S. Kelly, M. Johns, 

D. Furtek, J. Schiefelbein, and 0. Nelson, Iso- 
lation of Spm controlling elements from maize, 
Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. k9, 
339-345, 1984. 

Laura Kalfayan 

Kalfayan, L., J. Levine, T. Orr- Weaver, S. 

Parks, B. Wakimoto, D. de Cicco, and A. Spra- 
dling, Localization of sequences regulating 
Drosophila chorion gene amplification and 
expression, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. 
Biol. 50, in press. 



130 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Samuel Kelly 

Fedoroff, N., M. Shure, S. Kelly, M. Johns, 

D. Furtek, J. Schiefelbein, and 0. Nelson, Iso- 
lation of Spm controlling elements from maize, 
Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 49, 
339-345, 1984. 

Naomi Lipsky 

Lipsky, N. G., and R. E. Pagano, Fluores- 
cent sphingomyelin labels the plasma mem- 
brane of cultured fibroblasts, Ann. N. Y. Acad. 
Sci. 435, 306-308, 1984. 

Lipsky, N. G., and R. E. Pagano, Intracel- 
lular translocation of fluorescent sphingolipids 
in cultured fibroblasts: endogenously synthe- 
sized sphingomyelin and glucocerebroside an- 
alogs pass through the Golgi apparatus en route 
to the plasma membrane, J. Cell Biol. 100, 
27-34, 1985. 

Lipsky, N. G., and R. E. Pagano, A vital 

stain for the golgi apparatus, Science 228, 745- 
747, 1985. 

Steven L. McKnight 

McKnight, S. L., R. C. Kingsbury, A. 

Spence, and M. Smith, The distal transcription 
signals of the herpes virus tk gene share a 
common hexanucleotide control sequence, Cell 
37, 253-262, 1984. 

Eisenberg, S. P., D. M. Coen, and S. L. 

McKnight, Promoter domains required for 
expression of plasmid-borne copies of the herpes 
simplex virus tk gene in virus-infected mouse 
fibroblasts and microinjected frog oocytes, Mol. 
Cell Biol., in press. 

Graves, B. J., R. N. Eisenman, and S. L. 

McKnight, Delineation of transcriptional con- 
trol signals within the Maloney Murine Sar- 
coma Virus LTR, Mol. Cell Biol., in press. 

Graves, B. J., S. P. Eisenberg, D. M. Coen, 

and S. L. McKnight, Alternative utilization of 
two regulatory domains within the MSV LTR, 
Mol. Cell Biol., in press. 

Merrill, G. F., R. M. Harland, M. Groudine, 

and S. L. McKnight, Genetic and physical anal- 
ysis of the chicken tk gene, Mol. Cell Biol, 4, 
1769-1776, 1984. 

Merrill, G. F., S. D. Hauschka, and S. L. 

McKnight, Tk enzyme expression in differ- 
entiating muscle cells is regulated through an 
internal segment of the cellular tk gene, Mol. 
Cell Biol. 4, 1769-1776, 1984. 



Ronan O'Rahilly 

Muller, F., and R. O'Rahilly, Cerebral dys- 

raphia (future anencephaly) in a human twin 
embryo at stage 13, Teratol. 30, 167-177, 1984. 

O'Rahilly, R., The development and classi- 
fication of anomalies of the limbs in the human, 
in Prevention of Physical and Mental Con- 
genital Defects, Part C, M. Marois, ed., pp. 
85-90, Alan Liss, New York, 1985. 

O'Rahilly, R., and F. Muller, Embryonic 

length and cerebral landmarks in staged hu- 



man embryos, Anat. Rec. 209, 265-271, 1984a. 
_ O'Rahilly, R., and F. Muller, Respiratory 
and alimentary relations in staged human em- 
bryos: new embryological data and congenital 
anomalies, Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 93, 
421-429, 1984a. 

_ O'Rahilly, R., and F. Muller, The origin of 
the ectodermal ring in staged human embryos 
of the first five weeks, Acta Anat. 122, 145- 
157, 1985. 

. O'Rahilly, R., F. Muller, G. M. Hutchins, 
and G. W. Moore, Computer ranking of the 
sequence of appearance of 100 features of the 
brain and related structures in staged human 
embryos during the first five weeks, Amer. J. 
Anat. 171, 243-257, 1984. 



Terry Orr-Weaver 

Kalfayan, L., J. Levine, T. Orr-Weaver, S. 

Parks, B. Wakimoto, D. de Cicco, and A. Spra- 
dling, Localization of sequences regulating 
Drosophila chorion gene amplification and 
expression, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. 
Biol. 50, in press. 

Richard E. Pagano 

Pagano, R. E., and K. J. Longmuir, Phos- 
phorylation, transbilayer movement, and fa- 
cilitated intracellular transport of diacylgly- 
cerol are involved in the uptake of a fluorescent 
analog of phosphatidic acid by cultured fibro- 
blasts, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 1909-1916, 1985. 

Pagano, R. E., and R. G. Sleight, Denning 

lipid transport pathways in animal cells, Sci- 
ence, in press. 

Lipsky, N. G., and R. E. Pagano, Fluores- 
cent sphingomyelin labels the plasma mem- 
brane of cultured fibroblasts, Ann. N. Y. Acad. 
Sci. 435, 306-308, 1984. 

Lipsky, N. G., and R. E. Pagano, Intracel- 
lular translocation of fluorescent sphingolipids 
in cultured fibroblasts: endogenously synthe- 
sized sphingomyelin and glucocerebroside an- 
alogs pass through the Golgi apparatus en route 
to the plasma membrane, /. Cell Biol. 100, 
27-34, 1985. 

Lipsky, N. G., and R. E. Pagano, A vital 

stain for the golgi apparatus, Science 228, 745- 
747, 1985. 

Longmuir, K. J., O. C. Martin, and R. E. 

Pagano, Synthesis of fluorescent and radiola- 
beled analogues of phosphatidic acid, Chem. 
Phys. Lipids 36, 197-207, 1985. 

Sleight, R. G., and R. E. Pagano, Transport 

of a fluorescent phosphatidylcholine analog from 
the plasma membrane to the golgi apparatus, 
J. Cell Biol. 99, 742-751, 1984. 

Sleight, R. G., and R. E. Pagano, Trans- 
membrane movement of a fluorescent phos- 
phatidylethanolamine analogue across the 
plasma membranes of cultured mammalian cells, 
J. Biol. Chem. 260, 1146-1154, 1985. 



Suki Parks 

Kalfayan, L., J. Levine, T. Orr-Weaver, S. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



131 



Parks, B. Wakimoto, D. de Cicco, and A. Spra- 
dling, Localization of sequences regulating 
Drosophila chorion gene amplification and 
expression, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. 
Biol. 50, in press. 

Mark Schlissel 

Schlissel, M., and D. D. Brown, The tran- 
scriptional regulation of Xenopus 5S RNA genes 
in chromatin: the roles of active stable tran- 
scription complexes and histone HI, Cell 37, 
903-913, 1984. 

David R. Setzer 

Setzer, D. R., and D. D. Brown, Formation 

and stability of the 5S RNA transcription com- 
plex, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 2483-2492, 1985. 

Richard G. Sleight 

Sleight, R. G., and R. E. Pagano, Transport 

of a fluorescent phosphatidylcholine analog from 
the plasma membrane to the golgi apparatus, 
J. Cell Biol. 99, 742-751, 1984. 

Sleight, R. G., and R. E. Pagano, Trans- 
membrane movement of a fluorescent phos- 
phatidylethanolamine analogue across the 
plasma membranes of cultured mammalian cells, 
J. Biol. Chem. 260, 1146-1154, 1985. 

Pagano, R. E., and R. G. Sleight, Defining 

lipid transport pathways in animal cells, Sci- 
ence, in press. 



Martin D. Snider 

Snider, M. D., and 0. C. Rogers, Intracel- 
lular movement of cell surface receptors after 
endocytosis: resialylation of asialotransferrin 
receptor in human erythroleukemia cells, J. 
Cell Biol. 100, 826-834, 1985. 

Allan C. Spradling 

Levine, J., and A. Spradling, DNA se- 
quence of a 3.8 kb region controlling Droso- 
phila chorion gene amplification, Chromosoma 
91, in press. 

Kalfayan, L., J. Levine, T. Orr- Weaver, S. 

Parks, B. Wakimoto, D. de Cicco, and A. Spra- 
dling, Localization of sequences regulating 
Drosophila chorion gene amplification and 
expression, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. 
Biol. 50, in press. 

Barbara Wakimoto 

Kalfayan, L., J. Levine, T. Orr- Weaver, S. 

Parks, B. Wakimoto, D. de Cicco, and A. Spra- 
dling, Localization of sequences regulating 
Drosophila chorion gene amplification and 
expression, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. 
Biol. 50, in press. 

Rahul Warrior 

Warrior, R., and J. G. Gall, The mitochon- 
drial DNA of Hydra attenuata and Hydra lit- 
toralis consists of two linear molecules, Arch. 
Sci. (Geneve), in press. 



DEPARTMENT OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



Reprints of the numbered publications list- 
ed below can be obtained at no charge from 
the Department of Plant Biology, 290 Panama 
St., Stanford, CA 94305. Please give reprint 
number(s) when ordering. 

Tobias I. Baskin 

852 Baskin, T. I., M. lino, P. B. Green, and W. 
R. Briggs, High-resolution measurements of 
growth during first positive phototropism in 
maize, Plant Cell Environ., in press. 

Joseph A. Berry 

865 Mott, K., R. G. Jensen, J. W. O'Leary, and 
J. A. Berry, Photosynthesis and RuBP con- 
centrations in intact leaves of Xanthium stru- 
marum L., Plant Physiol. 76, 968-971, 1984. 

870 Tsuzuki, M., S. Miyachi, and J. A. Berry, 
Intracellular accumulation of inorganic carbon 
and its active species taken up by Chlorella 
vulgaris llh, in Inorganic Carbon Uptake by 
Aquatic Photosynthetic Organisms, W J. Lu- 
cas and J. A. Berry, eds., pp. 53-66, American 
Society of Plant Physiologists, 1985. 



886 Seemann, J. R., J. A. Berry, S. M. Freas, 
and M. A. Krump, Regulation of ribulose bis- 
phosphate carboxylase activity in vivo by a 
light modulated inhibitor of catalysis, Proc. 
Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, in press. 

890 Coleman, J. R., L. S. Green, J. A. Berry, 
R. K. Togasaki, and A. R. Grossman, Adap- 
tation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to air 
levels of C0 2 and the induction of carbonic an- 
hydrase activity, in Inorganic Carbon Uptake 
by Aquatic Photosynthetic Organisms, W. J. 
Lucas and J. A. Berry, eds., pp. 339-359, 
American Society of Plant Physiologists, 1985. 

891 Sharkey, T., and J. A. Berry, Carbon iso- 
tope fractionation of algae as influenced by an 
inducible C0 2 concentrating mechanism, in In- 
organic Carbon Uptake by Aquatic Photosyn- 
thetic Organisms, W. J. Lucas and J. A. Ber- 
ry, eds., pp. 389-401, American Society of Plant 
Physiologists, 1985. 

Winslow R. Briggs 

808 Kaufman, L. S., W. F. Thompson, and W. 
R. Briggs, Different red light requirements for 
phytochrome-induced accumulation of cab RNA 



132 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



and rbc RNA, Science 226, 1447-1449, 1984. 

834 Schafer, E. , M. lino, and W. R. Briggs, Red 
light-induced shift of the fluence-response curve 
for first positive phototropic curvature of maize 
coleoptiles, in Blue Light Effects in Biological 
Systems, H. Senger, ed., pp. 475-479, Sprin- 
ger- Verlag, Berlin, 1984. 

848 Kaufman, L. S., J. C. Watson, W. R. Briggs, 
and W. F. Thompson, Photoregulation of nu- 
clear-encoded transcripts: blue light regulation 
of specific transcript abundance, in The Mo- 
lecular Biology of the Photosynthetic Appa- 
ratus, K. Steinbeck et al., eds., Cold Spring 
Harbor, in press. 

852 Baskin, T. L, M. lino, P. B. Green, and W. 
R. Briggs, High-resolution measurements of 
growth during first positive phototropism in 
maize, Plant Cell Environ. , in press. 

854 lino, M. , E. Schafer, and W. R. Briggs, Pho- 
toperception sites for phytochrome-mediated 
phototropism of maize mesocotyls, Planta 162, 
477-479, 1984. 

863 Lomax, T. L., R. J. Melhorn, and W. R. 
Briggs, Active auxin uptake by zucchini mem- 
brane vesicles: quantitation using ESR volume 
and pH determination, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 
USA 82, 6541-6545, 1985. 

866 Kaufman, L. S., W. F. Thompson, and W. 
R. Briggs, Phytochrome control of specific 
mRNA levels in developing pea buds: the pres- 
ence of both very low fluence and low fluence 
responses, Plant Physiol. 78, 388-393, 1985. 

867 Briggs, W. R., D. Mandoli, J. R. Shinkle, 
L. S. Kaufman, J. C. Watson, and W. F. 
Thompson, Phytochrome regulation of plant 
development at the whole plant, physiological 
and molecular levels, in Photoperception and 
Sensory Transduction in Aneural Organisms, 
F. Lenci and G. Columbetti, eds. , pp. 265-280, 
Plenum Pub., New York, 1985. 

878 Shinkle, J. R., and W. R. Briggs, Physio- 
logical mechanism of the auxin-induced in- 
crease in light sensitivity of phytochrome-me- 
diated growth responses in Avena coleoptile 
sections, Plant Physiol., in press. 

879 Koller, D., I. Leviton, W. R. Briggs, The 
vectorial photo-excitation in solar-tracking 
leaves of Lavatera cretica (Malvaceae), Pho- 
tochem. Photobiol., in press. 

880 Koller, D., I. Leviton, and W. R. Briggs, 
Components of vectorial photo-excitation in 
solar-tracking leaves of Lavatera cretica (Mal- 
vaceae), Physiol. Veg., in press. 

887 Shinkle, J. R., and W. R. Briggs, Optimi- 
zation of red light-induced elongation in Av- 
ena coleoptile sections and properties of the 
phytochrome-mediated growth response, Plant 
Cell Environ. , in press. 



Jeanette S. Brown 
846 Brown, J., Three photosynthetic antenna 

porphyrins in a primitive green alga, Biochim. 

Biophys. Acta 807, 143-146, 1985. 
876 Brown, J. S., Chlorophyll absorption and 



fluorescence in photosynthetic membranes, in 
Model Building in Plant Physiology I Bio- 
chemistry, CRC Press, in press. 

Pamela Conley 
883 Conley, P., P. Lemaux, and A. R. Gross- 
man, Cyanobacterial light-harvesting complex 
subunits encoded in two red light-induced 
transcripts, Science 230, 550-553, 1985. 

David C. Fork 

802 Hoshina, S., P. Mohanty, and D. C. Fork, 
Temperature dependent changes in absorption 
and fluorescence properties of the cyanobac- 
terium Anacystis nidulans, Photosyn. Res. 5, 
347-360, 1984. 

817 Mohanty, P., J. Brand, and D. Fork, Cal- 
cium depletion alters energy transfer and pre- 
vents state changes in intact Anacystis ni- 
dulans, Photosyn. Res. 6, 349-361, 1985. 

855 Fork, D. C, and P. Mohanty, Blue-green 
(cyanobacteria), red algae and cryptomonads, 
in Light Emission From Plants and Bacteria, 
Govindjee, J. Amesz, and D. C. Fork, eds., 
Academic Press, New York, in press. 

860 Mohanty, P., S. Hoshina, and D. C. Fork, 
Energy transfer from phycobilins to chloro- 
phyll a in heat-stressed cells of Anacystis ni- 
dulans. Characteristics of the low tempera- 
ture 683 nm fluorescence emission band, Pho- 
tochem. Photobiol. 41, 589-596, 1985. 

873 Williams, P., A. Sen, and D. C. Fork, Se- 
lective photobleaching of PSI-related chloro- 
phylls in heat-stressed pea chloroplasts, Pho- 
tosyn. Res., in press. 

877 Fork, D. C, P. Mohanty, and S. Hoshina, 
The detection by delayed light emission of ear- 
ly events in heat disruption of thylakoid mem- 
branes, Physiol. Veg. 23, in press. 

Suzan M. Freas 

886 Seemann, J. R., J. A. Berry, S. M. Freas, 
and M. A. Krump, Regulation of ribulose bis- 
phosphate carboxylase activity in vivo by a 
light modulated inhibitor of catalysis, Proc. 
Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, in press. 

Laura S. Green 

890 Coleman, J. R., L. S. Green, J. A. Berry, 
R. K. Togasaki, and A. R. Grossman, Adap- 
tation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to air 
levels of C0 2 and the induction of carbonic an- 
hydrase activity, in Inorganic Carbon Uptake 
by Aquatic Photosynthetic Organisms, W. J. 
Lucas and J. A. Berry, eds., pp. 339-359, 
American Society of Plant Physiologists, 1985. 

Arthur R. Grossman 

882 Lemaux, P., and A. R. Grossman, Major 
light harvesting polypeptides encoded in po- 
lycistronic transcripts in a eukaryotic alga, 
EMBO J. A, 1911-1919, 1985. 

883 Conley, P., P. Lemaux, and A. R. Gross- 
man, Cyanobacterial light-harvesting complex 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



133 



subunits encoded in two red light-induced 
transcripts, Science 230, 550-553, 1985. 
890 Coleman, J. R., L. S. Green, J. A. Berry, 
R. K. Togasaki, and A. R. Grossman, Adap- 
tation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to air 
levels of C0 2 and the induction of carbonic an- 
hydrase activity, in Inorganic Carbon Uptake 
by Aquatic Photosynthetic Organisms, W. J. 
Lucas and J. A. Berry, eds., pp. 339-359, 
American Society of Plant Physiologists, 1985. 

Moritoshi lino 

834 Schafer, E. , M. lino, and W. R. Briggs, Red 
light-induced shift of the fluence-response curve 
for first positive phototropic curvature of maize 
coleoptiles, in Blue Light Effects in Biological 
Systems, H. Senger, ed., pp. 475-479, Sprin- 
ger- Verlag, Berlin, 1984. 

850 lino, M., and E. Schafer, Phototropic re- 
sponse of the state I Phycomyces sporangio- 
phore to a pulse of blue light, Proc. Nat. Acad. 
Sci. USA 81, 7103-7107, 1984. 

852 Baskin, T. I., M. lino, P. B. Green, and W. 
R. Briggs, High-resolution measurements of 
growth during first positive phototropism in 
maize, Plant Cell Environ., in press. 

854 lino, M. , E. Schafer, and W. R. Briggs, Pho- 
toperception sites for phytochrome-mediated 
phototropism of maize mesocotyls, Planta 162, 
477-479, 1984. 

864 lino, M., T. Ogawa, and E. Zeiger, Kinetic 
properties of the blue light response of sto- 
mata, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, in press. 

Lon S. Kaufman 

808 Kaufman, L. S., W. F. Thompson, and W. 
R. Briggs, Different red light requirements for 
phytochrome-induced accumulation of cab RNA 
and rbc RNA, Science 226, 1447-1449, 1984. 

848 Kaufman, L. S., J. C. Watson, W. R. Briggs, 
and W. F. Thompson, Photoregulation of nu- 
clear-encoded transcripts: blue light regulation 
of specific transcript abundance, in The Mo- 
lecular Biology of the Photosynthetic Appa- 
ratus, K. Steinbeck et al., eds., Cold Spring 
Harbor, in press. 

866 Kaufman, L. S., W. F. Thompson, and W. 
R. Briggs, Phytochrome control of specific 
mRNA levels in developing pea buds: the pres- 
ence of both very low fluence and low fluence 
responses, Plant Physiol. 78, 388-393, 1985. 

867 Briggs, W. R., D. Mandoli, J. R. Shinkle, 
L. S. Kaufman, J. C. Watson, and W. F. 
Thompson, Phytochrome regulation of plant 
development at the whole plant, physiological 
and molecular levels, in Photoperception and 
Sensory Transduction inAneural Organisms, 
F. Lenci and G. Columbetti, eds., pp. 265-280, 
Plenum Pub., New York, 1985. 

Peggy Lemaux 

882 Lemaux, P., and A. R. Grossman, Major 
light harvesting polypeptides encoded in po- 
lycistronic transcripts in a eukaryotic alga, 




Arthur Grossman of the Department of 
Plant Biology doing restriction digest of 
algal DNA. 



EMBO J. A, 1911-1919, 1985. 
883 Conley, P., P. Lemaux, and A. R. Gross- 
man, Cyanobacterial light-harvesting complex 
subunits encoded in two red light-induced 
transcripts, Science 230, 550-553, 1985. 

Jacob Levitt 
875 Levitt, J., Relationship of dehydration rate 
to drought avoidance, dehydration tolerance, 
and dehydration avoidance of cabbage leaves, 
and to their acclimation during drought-in- 
duced water stress, Plant Cell Environ. 8, 
287-296, 1985. 

Terri L. Lomax 

862 Lomax, T. L., and R. J. Melhorn, Deter- 
mination of plant membrane vesicle volume and 
pH gradient using electron spin resonance 
spectroscopy, Biochem. Biophys. Acta, in press. 

863 Lomax, T. L., R. J. Melhorn, and W. R. 
Briggs, Active auxin uptake by zucchini mem- 
brane vesicles: quantitation using ESR volume 
and pH determination, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 
USA 82, 6541-6545, 1985. 

Dina F. Mandoli 
867 Briggs, W. R., D. Mandoli, J. R. Shinkle, 
L. S. Kaufman, J. C. Watson, and W. F. 
Thompson, Phytochrome regulation of plant 
development at the whole plant, physiological 
and molecular levels, in Photoperception and 
Sensory Transduction inAneural Organisms, 
F. Lenci and G. Columbetti, eds., pp. 265-280, 
Plenum Pub., New York, 1985. 

Keith Mott 
865 Mott, K., R. G. Jensen, J. W. O'Leary, and 



134 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



J. A. Berry, Photosynthesis and RuBP con- 
centrations in intact leaves of Xanthium stru- 
marum L., Plant Physiol. 76, 968-971, 1984. 

Jeffrey D. Palmer 

839 Palmer, J. D., R. A. Jorgensen, and W. F. 

Thompson, Chloroplast DNA Pisum variation 

and evolution in patterns of change and phy- 

logenetic analysis, Genetics 109, 195-213, 1985. 

Neil 0. Polans 

869 Polans, N. 0., N. F. Weeden, and W. F. 
Thompson, The inheritance, organization and 
mapping of rbcs and cab multigene families in 
pea, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, in press. 

874 Polans, N. 0., N. Weeden, and W. F. 
Thompson, The distribution and inheritance 
and linkage relationships of ribosomal DNA 
spacer length variation in pea, Theor. Appl. 
Genet. , in press. 

Eberhard S chafer 

834 Schafer, E., M. lino, and W. R. Briggs, Red 
light-induced shift of the fluence-response curve 
for first positive phototropic curvature of maize 
coleoptiles, in Blue Light Effects in Biological 
Systems, H. Senger, ed., pp. 475-479, Sprin- 
ger- Verlag, Berlin, 1984. 

850 lino, M., and E. Schafer, Phototropic re- 
sponse of the state I Phycomyces sporangio- 
phore to a pulse of blue light, Proc. Nat. Acad. 
Sci. USA 81, 7103-7107, 1984. 

854 lino, M. , E. Schafer, and W. R. Briggs, Pho- 
toperception sites for phytochrome-mediated 
phototropism of maize mesocotyls, Planta 162, 
477-479, 1984. 

Arindam Sen 
873 Williams, P., A. Sen, and D. C. Fork, Se- 
lective photobleaching of PSI-related chloro- 
phylls in heat-stressed pea chloroplasts, Pho- 
tosyn. Res., in press. 

James R. Shinkle 

867 Briggs, W. R., D. Mandoli, J. R. Shinkle, 
L. S. Kaufman, J. C. Watson, and W. F. 
Thompson, Phytochrome regulation of plant 
development at the whole plant, physiological 
and molecular levels, in Photoperception and 
Sensory Transduction inAneural Organisms, 
F. Lend and G. Columbetti, eds., pp. 265-280, 
Plenum Pub., New York, 1985. 

878 Shinkle, J. R., and W. R. Briggs, Physio- 
logical mechanism of the auxin-induced in- 
crease in light sensitivity of phytochrome-me- 
diated growth responses in Avena coleoptile 
sections, Plant Physiol., in press. 

887 Shinkle, J. R., and W. R. Briggs, Optimi- 
zation of red light-induced elongation in Av- 
ena coleoptile sections and properties of the 
phytochrome-mediated growth response, Plant 
Cell Environ. , in press. 



David B. Stern 

803 Stern, D. B., and J. D. Palmer, Recombi- 
nation sequences in plant mitochondrial gen- 
omes: diversity and homologies to known mi- 
tochondrial genes, Nucl. Acids Res. 12, 6141- 
6157, 1984. 

861 Stern, D. B., and K. J. Newton, Mitochon- 
drial gene expression in Cucurbitaceae: con- 
served and variable features, Curr. Genet. 9, 
395-405, 1985. 

889 Stern, D. B., and K. J. Newton, Isolation 
of plant mitochondrial RNA, in Methods ofEn- 
zymology, A. Weissbach and H. Weissbach, 
eds., Academic Press, New York, in press. 



William F. Thompson 

808 Kaufman, L. S., W. F. Thompson, and W. 
R. Briggs, Different red light requirements for 
phytochrome-induced accumulation of cab RNA 
and rbc RNA, Science 226, 1447-1449, 1984. 

839 Palmer, J. D., R. A. Jorgensen, and W. F. 
Thompson, Chloroplast DNA Pisum variation 
and evolution in patterns of change and phy- 
logenetic analysis, Genetics 109, 195-213, 1985. 

848 Kaufman, L. S., J. C. Watson, W. R. Briggs, 
and W. F. Thompson, Photoregulation of nu- 
clear-encoded transcripts: blue light regulation 
of specific transcript abundance, in The Mo- 
lecular Biology of the Photosynthetic Appa- 
ratus, K. Steinbeck et al., eds., Cold Spring 
Harbor, in press. 

866 Kaufman, L. S., W. F. Thompson, and W. 
R. Briggs, Phytochrome control of specific 
mRNA levels in developing pea buds: the pres- 
ence of both very low fluence and low fluence 
responses, Plant Physiol. 78, 388-393, 1985. 

867 Briggs, W. R., D. Mandoli, J. R. Shinkle, 
L. S. Kaufman, J. C. Watson, and W. F. 
Thompson, Phytochrome regulation of plant 
development at the whole plant, physiological 
and molecular levels, in Photoperception and 
Sensory Transduction inAneural Organisms, 
F. Lenciand G. Columbetti, eds., pp. 265-280, 
Plenum Pub., New York, 1985. 

869 Polans, N. O., N. F. Weeden, and W. F. 
Thompson, The inheritance, organization and 
mapping of rbcs and cab multigene families in 
pea, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, in press. 

872 Watson, J. C, and W. F. Thompson, Pu- 
rification and restriction analysis of plant nu- 
clear DNA, in Methods in Enzymology, A. 
Weissbach and H. Weissbach, eds., Academic 
Press, New York, in press. 

888 Flavell, R. B., M. O'Dell, D. B. Smith, and 
W. F. Thompson, Chromosome architecture: 
the distribution of recombination sites, the 
structure of ribosomal DNA loci, and the mul- 
tiplicity of sequences containing inverted re- 
peats, in Molecular Form and Function of the 
Plant Genome, L. van Vloten-Doting, G. S. 
P. Groot, and T. C. Hall, eds., Plenum Pub., 
New York, 1985. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



135 



Robert K. Togasaki 
890 Coleman, J. R., L. S. Green, J. A. Berry, 
R. K. Togasaki, and A. R. Grossman, Adap- 
tation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to air 
levels of C0 2 and the induction of carbonic an- 
hydrase activity, in Inorganic Carbon Uptake 
by Aquatic Photosynthetic Organisms, W. J. 
Lucas and J. A. Berry, eds., pp. 339-359, 
American Society of Plant Physiologists, 1985. 

John C. Watson 
848 Kaufman, L. S., J. C. Watson, W. R. Briggs, 
and W. F. Thompson, Photoregulation of nu- 
clear-encoded transcripts: blue light regulation 
of specific transcript abundance, in The Mo- 
lecular Biology of the Photosynthetic Appa- 
ratus, K. Steinbeck et al., eds., Cold Spring 
Harbor, in press. 



867 Briggs, W. R., D. Mandoli, J. R. Shinkle, 
L. S. Kaufman, J. C. Watson, and W. F. 
Thompson, Phytochrome regulation of plant 
development at the whole plant, physiological 
and molecular levels, in Photoperception and 
Sensory Transduction inAneural Organisms, 
F. Lenci and G. Columbetti, eds., pp. 265-280, 
Plenum Pub., New York, 1985. 

872 Watson, J. C, and W. F. Thompson, Pu- 
rification and restriction analysis of plant nu- 
clear DNA, in Methods in Enzymology, A. 
Weissbach and H. Weissbach, eds., Academic 
Press, New York, in press. 

Eduardo Zeiger 
864 lino, M., T. Ogawa, and E. Zeiger, Kinetic 
properties of the blue light response of sto- 
mata, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, in press. 



DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY RESEARCH GROUP 



Roy J. Britten 

Shott, R. J., J. J. Lee, R. J. Britten, and 

E. H. Davidson, Differential expression of the 
actin gene family of Strongylocentrotus pur- 
puratus, Devel. Biol. 102, 295-306, 1984. 

Niman, H. L., B. R. Hough-Evans, V. D. 

Vacquier, R. J. Britten, R. A. Lerner, and E. 
H. Davidson, Proteins of the sea urchin egg 
vitelline layer, Devel. Biol. 102, 390-401, 1984. 

McMahon, A. P., C. N. Flytzanis, B. R. 

Hough-Evans, K. S. Katula, R. J. Britten, and 
E. H. Davidson, Gene transfer in the sea ur- 
chin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, in 
Transfer and Expression ofEukaryotic Genes, 
H. S. Ginsberg and H. J. Vogel, eds., pp. 113— 
121, Academic Press, Orlando, 1984. 

Johnson, S. A., E. H. Davidson, and R. J. 

Britten, Insertion of a short repetitive se- 
quence (D881) in a sea urchin gene: a typical 
interspersed repeat?, J. Mol. Evol. 20, 195- 
201, 1984. 

Shott- Akhurst, R. J., F. J. Calzone, R. J. 

Britten, and E. H. Davidson, Isolation and 
characterization of a cell lineage-specific cy- 
toskeletal actin gene family of Strongylocen- 
trotus purpuratus, in Molecular Biology of 
Development, UCLA Symposium Molecular 
and Cellular Biology 19, E. H. Davidson and 
R. A. Firtel, eds., pp. 119-128, Alan R. Liss, 
New York, 1984. 

Flytzanis, C. N., A. P. McMahon, B. R. 

Hough-Evans, K. S. Katula, R. J. Britten, and 
E. H. Davidson, Gene transfer in the sea ur- 
chin, in Molecular Biology of Development, 
UCLA Symposium Molecular and Cellular 
Biology 19, E. H. Davidson and R. A. Firtel, 
eds., pp. 621-632, Alan R. Liss, New York, 
1984. 

McMahon, A. P. , T. J. Novak, R. J. Britten, 



and E. H. Davidson, Inducible expression of 
a cloned heat shock fusion gene in sea urchin 
embryos, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 7490- 
7494, 1984. 

_ Britten, R. J., Mobile elements and DNA 
repeats, Carlsberg Res. Commun. 4-9, 169- 
178, 1984. 

_ McMahon, A. P., C. N. Flytzanis, B. R. 
Hough-Evans, K. S. Katula, R. J. Britten, and 
E. H. Davidson, Introduction of cloned DNA 
into sea urchin egg cytoplasm: replication and 
persistence during embryogenesis, Devel. Biol. 
108, 420-430, 1985. 

_ Flytzanis, C. N., A. P. McMahon, B. R. 
Hough-Evans, K. S. Katula, R. J. Britten, and 
E. H. Davidson, Persistence and integration 
of cloned DNA in postembryonic sea urchins, 
Devel. Biol. 108, 431-442, 1985. 

_ Katula, K. S., B. R. Hough-Evans, C. N. 
Flytzanis, A. P. McMahon, R. R. Franks, R. 
J. Britten, and E. H. Davidson, A sea urchin 
gene transfer system, in Genetic Manipula- 
tion of the Mammalian Embryo, Cold Spring 
Harbor Laboratory, in press. 

_ Britten, R. J., and E. H. Davidson, Hy- 
bridization strategy, in Nucleic Acid Hybrid- 
ization — A Practical Approach, B. D. Hames 
and S. J. Higgins, eds., Information Retrieval 
Ltd. , in press. 

_ Roberts, J. W., S. A. Johnson, P. Kier, T. 
J. Hall, E. H. Davidson, and R. J. Britten, 
Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences 
expressed in sea urchin eggs and early em- 
bryos, J. Mol. Evol. 22, 99-107, 1985. 

. Britten, R. J., Intraspecies genomic varia- 
tion, Stadler Genetics Symposium, Plenum 
Pub. , in press. 
_ Britten, R. J. , Rates of DNA sequence evo- 



136 



lution differ between taxonomic groups, Sci- 
ence, in press. 

. Lee, J. J., F. J. Calzone, R. J. Britten, R. 
C. Angerer, and E. H. Davidson, Activation 
of sea urchin actin genes during embryoge- 
nesis: measurement of transcript accumulation 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

from five different genes, J. Mol. Biol. , in press. 
_ Cox, K. H., L. M. Angerer, J. J. Lee, R. 
J. Britten, E. H. Davidson, and R. C. Anger- 
er, Cell lineage-specific programs of expres- 
sion of multiple actin genes during sea urchin 
embryogenesis, J. Mol. Biol., in press. 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY 



Reprints of the numbered publications list- 
ed below are available at no charge from the 
Editor, Geophysical Laboratory, 2801 Upton 
St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008. Please 
give reprint number(s) when ordering. 

Peter M. Bell 

1933 Bell, P. M., H. K. Mao, and K. A. Goettel, 
Ultrahigh-pressure: beyond 2 megabars and 
the ruby fluorescence scale, Science 226, 542- 
544, 1984. 

1939 Mao, H. K. , J. Xu, and P. M. Bell, Pressure- 
induced infrared spectra of hydrogen to 542 
kbar, in High Pressure in Science and Tech- 
nology, Part 3, C. Homan, R. K. MacCrone, 
and E. Whalley, eds., pp. 327-331, Elsevier, 
Amsterdam, 1984. 

1948 Xu, J., H. K. Mao, and P. M. Bell, Position- 
sensitive x-ray diffraction: hydrostatic com- 
pressibility of argon, tantalum, and copper to 
769 kbar, High Temp. -High Pressures 16, 495- 
499, 1984. 

1950 Goettel, K. A., H. K. Mao, and P. M. Bell, 
Generation of static pressures above 2.5 me- 
gabars in a diamond-anvil pressure cell, Rev. 
Sci. Instrum. 56, 1420-1427, 1985. 

1958 Mao, H. K., P. M. Bell, and R. J. Hemley, 
Ultrahigh pressures: optical observations and 
Raman measurements of hydrogen and deu- 
terium to 1.47 Mbar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 99- 
102, 1985. 

1961 Mao, H. K., K. A. Goettel, and P. M. Bell, 
Ultrahigh-pressure experiments at pressures 
exceeding 2 megabars, in Proceedings of the 
International Symposium on Solid State 
Physics under Pressure, S. Minomura, ed., 
pp. 11-17, KTK Scientific Pub. , Tokyo; D. Rei- 
del, Dordrecht/Boston/Lancaster, 1985. 

1962 Sharma, S. K., H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and 
J. A. Xu, Measurement of stress in diamond 
anvils with micro-Raman spectroscopy, J. Ra- 
man Spectros., in press. 

1968 Mao, H. K., J. Xu, and P. M. Bell, Calibra- 
tion of the ruby pressure gauge to 800 kbar 
under quasihydrostatic conditions, J. Geo- 
phys. Res., in press. 

Bell, P. M., J. Xu, and H. K. Mao, Static 

compression of gold and copper and calibration 
of the ruby pressure scale to pressures to 1.8 
megabars, in Proceedings of the Fourth Amer- 
ican Physical Society (APS) Topical Confer- 



ence on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter, 
Y. Gupta, ed., in press. 
. Ross, M., H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and J. Xu, 
The equation of state of dense argon: a com- 
parison of shock and static studies, in Pro- 
ceedings of the Fourth American Physical So- 
ciety (APS) Topical Conference on Shock Waves 
in Condensed Matter, Y. Gupta, ed., in press. 
. Jephcoat, A. P., H. K. Mao, and P. M. Bell, 
The static compression of iron to 78 GPa with 
rare gas solids as pressure-transmitting me- 
dia, J. Geophys. Res., in press. 
. Silver, P. G., R. W. Carlson, P. Bell, and 
P. Olson, Mantle structure and dynamics: a 
Carnegie Institution workshop, Trans. Amer. 
Geophys. Union, in press. 



Nabil Z. Boctor 

1940 Boctor, N. Z., Rhodonite solubility and 
thermodynamic properties of aqueous MnCl 2 
in the system MnO-Si0 2 -HCl-H 2 0, Geochim. 
Cosmochim. Acta ^9, 565-575, 1985. 

Boctor, N. Z., and H. S. Yoder, Jr., Pe- 
trology of some melilite-bearing rocks from Cape 
Province, Republic of South Africa: relation- 
ship to kimberlites, Amer. J. Sci., in press. 

Boctor, N. Z. , Y. N. Shieh, and G. Kullerud, 

Mercury ores from the New Idria mining dis- 
trict: geochemical and isotopic studies, Geo- 
chim. Cosmochim. Acta, in press. 

Boctor, N. Z., and G. Kullerud, Mercury 

selenide stoichiometry and phase relations, J. 
Solid State Chem. , in press. 

Francis R. Boyd 

1955 • Boyd, F. R., J. J. Gurney, and S. H. Rich- 
ardson, Evidence for a 150-200-km thick Ar- 
chaean lithosphere from diamond inclusion 
thermobarometry, Nature 315, 387-389, 1985. 

Felix Chayes 

Chayes, F., Complementary ternaries as a 

means of characterizing silica saturation in rocks 
of basaltic composition, /. Geol. , in press. 

Chayes, F., Consistency of the two-group 

discriminant function in repartitioning rocks 
by name, in Uses and Misuses of Statistics in 
the Earth Sciences (Memoir 1), International 
Association for Mathematical Geology, W. B. 
Size, ed., in press. 

Yoder, H. S., Jr., and F. Chayes, Linear 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

alkali correlation in oceanic alkali basalts, Bull. 
Geol. Soc. Finland, in press. 

Donald B. Dingwell 

1952 Dingwell, D. B., and B. 0. Mysen, Effects 
of water and fluorine on the viscosity of albite 
melt at high pressure: a preliminary investi- 
gation, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 7U, 266-274, 
1985. 

Dingwell, D. B., The structure and prop- 
erties of fluorine-rich magmas: a review of ex- 
perimental studies, CIM Bull., in press. 

Michael H. Engel 

1925 Hare, P. E., P. A. St. John, and M. H. En- 
gel, Ion-exchange separation of amino acids, 
in Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Amino 
Acids, G. C. Barrett, ed., pp. 415-425, Chap- 
man & Hall, London, 1985. 

1926 Engel, M. H., and P. E. Hare, Gas-liquid 
chromatographic separation of amino acids and 
their derivatives, in Chemistry and Biochem- 
istry of the Amino Acids, G. C. Barrett, ed., 
pp. 462-479, Chapman & Hall, London, 1985. 

Marilyn L. F. Estep 

1935 Estep, M. L. F., and S. A. Macko, Nitrogen 
isotope biogeochemistry of thermal springs, 
Org. Geochem. 6, 779-785, 1984. 

1936 Macko, S. A. , and M. L. F. Estep, Microbial 
alteration of stable nitrogen and carbon iso- 
topic compositions of organic matter, Org. 
Geochem. 6, 787-790, 1984. 

1964 Estep, M. L. F., and S. Vigg, Stable carbon 
and nitrogen isotope tracers of trophic dynam- 
ics in natural populations and fisheries of the 
Lahontan Lake system, Nevada, Can. J. Fish. 
Aquat. Sci. , in press. 

Larry W. Finger 

1932 Mendes Filho, J., V. Lemos, F. Cerdeira, 
R. S. Katiyar, R. M. Hazen, and L. W. Finger, 
Raman and x-ray studies of a high-pressure 
phase transition in 0-LiIO 3 and the study of 
anharmonic effects, Phys. Rev. B 30, 7212- 
7218, 1984. 

1938 Finger, L. W., Fingerite, CU n 2 (V0 4 )6, a 
new vanadium sublimate from Izalco volcano, 
El Salvador: crystal structure, Amer. Min- 
eral. 70, 197-199, 1985. 

1943 Hazen, R. M., L. W. Finger, and J. W. E. 
Mariathasan, High-pressure crystal chemistry 
of scheelite-type tungstates and molybdates, 
/. Phys. Chem. Solids 1>6, 253-263, 1985. 

1946 Mariathasan, J. W. E., L. W. Finger, and 
R. M. Hazen, High-pressure behavior of 
LaNb0 4 , Acta Crystallogr. B U, 179-184, 1985. 

1954 Hazen, R. M., and L. W. Finger, Crystals 
at high pressure, Sci. Amer. 252, 110-117, 1985. 

1967 Mariathasan, J. W. E., R. M. Hazen, and 
L. W. Finger, Crystal structure of the high- 
pressure form of BiV0 4 , Phase Transitions, 
in press. 



137 

Andrew P. Gize 

Gize, A. P., Analytical approaches to or- 
ganic matter in ore deposits, in Denver Region 
Exploration Geologists Symposium on "Or- 
ganics and Ore Deposits," in press. 

Gize, A. P., The development of a thermal 

mesophase in bitumens from high-tempera- 
ture ore deposits, in Denver Region Explo- 
ration Geologists Symposium on "Organics and 
Ore Deposits," in press. 

Kenneth A. Goettel 

1933 Bell, P. M., H. K. Mao, and K. A. Goettel, 
Ultrahigh pressure: beyond 2 megabars and 
the ruby fluorescence scale, Science 226, 542- 
544, 1984. 

1950 Goettel, K. A., H. K. Mao, and P. M. Bell, 
Generation of static pressures above 2.5 me- 
gabars in a diamond-anvil pressure cell, Rev. 
Sci. Instrum. 56, 1420-1427, 1985. 

1961 Mao, H. K., K. A. Goettel, and P. M. Bell, 
Ultrahigh-pressure experiments at pressures 
exceeding 2 megabars, in Proceedings of the 
International Symposium on Solid State 
Physics under Pressure, S. Minomura, ed., 
pp. 11-17, KTK Scientific Pub. , Tokyo; D. Rei- 
del, Dordrecht/Boston/Lancaster, 1985. 

P. Edgar Hare 

1925 Hare, P. E., P. A. St. John, and M. H. En- 
gel, Ion-exchange separation of amino acids, 
in Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Amino 
Acids, G. C. Barrett, ed., pp. 415-425, Chap- 
man & Hall, London, 1985. 

1926 Engel, M. H., and P. E. Hare, Gas-liquid 
chromatographic separation of amino acids and 
their derivatives, in Chemistry and Biochem- 
istry of the Amino Acids, G. C. Barrett, ed., 
pp. 462-479, Chapman & Hall, London, 1985. 

Robert M. Hazen 

1932 Mendes Filho, J., V. Lemos, F. Cerdeira, 
R. S. Katiyar, R. M. Hazen, and L. W. Finger, 
Raman and x-ray studies of a high-pressure 
phase transition in 3-LiI0 3 and the study of 
anharmonic effects, Phys. Rev. B 30, 7212- 
7218, 1984. 

1942 Hazen, R. M., Mineralogy: a historical re- 
view, /. Geol. Educ. 32, 288-298, 1984. 

1943 Hazen, R. M., L. W. Finger, and J. W. E. 
Mariathasan, High-pressure crystal chemistry 
of scheelite-type tungstates and molybdates, 
J. Phys. Chem. Solids 1*6, 253-263, 1985. 

1946 Mariathasan, J. W. E., L. W. Finger, and 
R. M. Hazen, High-pressure behavior of 
LaNb0 4 , Acta Crystallogr. B U, 179-184, 1985. 

1949 Hazen, M. H., and R. M. Hazen, Wealth 
Inexhaustible: A History of America's Min- 
eral Industries to 1850, Van Nostrand Rein- 
hold, New York, xv + 459 pp., 1985. (Obtain- 
able only from VNR Order Processing, 7625 
Empire Drive, Florence, KY 41042.) 

1954 Hazen, R. M., and L. W. Finger, Crystals 



138 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



at high pressure, Sci. Amer. 252, 110-117, 1985. 

1956 Hazen, R. M., Comparative crystal chem- 
istry, Rev. Mineral. U, 317-346, 1985. 

1967 Mariathasan, J. W. E., R. M. Hazen, and 
L. W. Finger, Crystal structure of the high- 
pressure form of BiV0 4 , Phase Transitions, 
in press. 

Russell J. Hemley 

1958 Mao, H. K., P. M. Bell, and R. J. Hemley, 
Ultrahigh pressures: optical observations and 
Raman measurements of hydrogen and deu- 
terium to 1.47 Mbar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 99- 
102, 1985. 

Thomas C. Hoering 

1934 Hoering, T. C, Thermal reactions of kero- 
gen with added water, heavy water and pure 
organic substances, Org. Geochem. 5, 267-278, 
1984. 

T. Neil Irvine 

Irvine, T. N. , Notes of the Geology of the 

Duke Island Ultramafic Complex, Southeast- 
ern Alaska, International Geophysical Cor- 
relation Project (IGCP) 161, Sulfide Deposits 
in Mafic and Ultramafic Rocks, 33 pp., 1985. 

Irvine, T. N., and M. R. Sharpe, Magma 

Mixing and the Origin of Stratiform Oxide Ore 
Zones in the Bushveld and Stillwater Com- 
plexes, Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 
London, in press. 

Andrew P. Jephcoat 

Jephcoat, A. P., H. K. Mao, and P. M. Bell, 

The static compression of iron to 78 GPa with 
rare gas solids as pressure-transmitting me- 
dia, J. Geophys. Res., in press. 

Ikuo Kushiro 

1959 Mysen, B. 0., D. Virgo, and I. Kushiro, 
Experimental studies of condensation pro- 
cesses of silicate materials at low pressures 
and high temperatures: I. Phase equilibria in 
the system CaMgSi 2 6 -H 2 in the temperature 
range 1200°-1500°C and the pressure range 
(Ph2> 10 _6 to 10 " 9 bar, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 
75, 139-146, 1985. 

Stephen A. Macko 

1935 Estep, M. L. F., and S. A. Macko, Nitrogen 
isotope biogeochemistry of thermal springs, 
Org. Geochem. 6, 779-785, 1984. 

1936 Macko, S. A., and M. L. F. Estep, Microbial 
alteration of stable nitrogen and carbon iso- 
topic compositions of organic matter, Org. 
Geochem. 6, 787-790, 1984. 

Ho-kwang Mao 

1933 Bell, P. M., H. K. Mao, and K. A. Goettel, 
Ultrahigh-pressure: beyond 2 megabars and 
the ruby fluorescence scale, Science 226, 542- 
544, 1984. 



1939 Mao, H. K. , J. Xu, and P. M. Bell, Pressure- 
induced infrared spectra of hydrogen to 542 
kbar, in High Pressure in Science and Tech- 
nology, Part 3, C. Homan, R. K. MacCrone, 
and E. Whalley, eds., pp. 327-331, Elsevier, 
Amsterdam, 1984. 

1948 Xu, J., H. K. Mao, and P. M. Bell, Position- 
sensitive x-ray diffraction: hydrostatic com- 
pressibility of argon, tantalum, and copper to 
769 kbar, High Temp. -High Pressures 16, 495- 
499, 1984. 

1950 Goettel, K. A., H. K. Mao, and P. M. Bell, 
Generation of static pressures above 2.5 me- 
gabars in a diamond-anvil pressure cell, Rev. 
Sci. Instrum. 56, 1420-1427, 1985. 

1958 Mao, H. K., P. M. Bell, and R. J. Hemley, 
Ultrahigh pressures: optical observations and 
Raman measurements of hydrogen and deu- 
terium to 1.47 Mbar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 99- 
102, 1985. 

1961 Mao, H. K., K. A. Goettel, and P. M. Bell, 
Ultrahigh-pressure experiments at pressures 
exceeding 2 megabars, in Proceedings of the 
International Symposium on Solid State 
Physics under Pressure, S. Minomura, ed., 
pp. 11-17, KTK Scientific Pub. , Tokyo; D. Rei- 
del, Dordrecht/Boston/Lancaster, 1985. 

1962 Sharma, S. K., H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and 
J. A. Xu, Measurement of stress in diamond 
anvils with micro-Raman spectroscopy, /. Ra- 
man Spectros., in press. 

1968 Mao, H. K., J. Xu, and P. M. Bell, Calibra- 
tion of the ruby pressure gauge to 800 kbar 
under quasihydrostatic conditions, J. Geo- 
phys. Res., in press. 

Bell, P. M., J. Xu, and H. K. Mao, Static 

compression of gold and copper and calibration 
of the ruby pressure scale to pressures to 1.8 
megabars, in Proceedings of the Fourth Amer- 
ican Physical Society (APS) Topical Confer- 
ence on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter, 
Y. Gupta, ed. , in press. 

Ross, M., H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and J. Xu, 

The equation of state of dense argon: a com- 
parison of shock and static studies, in Pro- 
ceedings of the Fourth American Physical So- 
ciety (APS) Topical Conference on Shock Waves 
in Condensed Matter, Y. Gupta, ed. , in press. 

. Jephcoat, A. P., H. K. Mao, and P. M. Bell, 

The static compression of iron to 78 GPa with 
rare gas solids as pressure-transmitting me- 
dia, J. Geophys. Res., in press, 1985. 



Joseph W. E. Mariathasan 

1943 Hazen, R. M., L. W. Finger, and J. W. E. 
Mariathasan, High-pressure crystal chemistry 
of scheelite-type tungstates and molybdates, 
J. Phys. Chen. Solids U6, 253-263, 1985. 

1946 Mariathasan, J. W. E., L. W. Finger, and 
R. M. Hazen, High-pressure behavior of 
LaNb0 4 , Acta Crystallogr. B J>1, 179-184, 1985. 

1967 Mariathasan, J. W. E., R. M. Hazen, and 
L. W. Finger, Crystal structure of the high- 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



139 



pressure form of BiV0 4 , Phase Transitions, 
in press. 

Bj0m 0. My sen 

1937 Mysen, B. 0., D. Virgo, and F. A. Seifert, 
Relationships between properties and struc- 
ture of aluminosilicate melts, Amer. Mineral. 
70, 88-105, 1985. 

1944 Mysen, B. 0., D. Virgo, E.-R. Neumann, 
and F. A. Seifert, Redox equilibria and the 
structural states of ferric and ferrous iron in 
melts in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2 3 -Si0 2 -Fe- 
0: relationships between redox equilibria, melt 
structure and liquidus phase equilibria, Amer. 
Mineral. 70, 317-331, 1985. 

1945 Virgo, D., and B. 0. Mysen, The structural 
state of iron in oxidized vs. reduced glasses at 
1 atm: a 57 Fe Mossbauer study, Phys. Chem. 
Miner. 12, 65-76, 1985. 

1947 Mysen, B. 0., and D. Virgo, Interaction be- 
tween fluorine and silica in quenched melts on 
the joins Si0 2 -A1F 3 and Si0 2 -NaF determined 
by Raman spectroscopy, Phys. Chem. Miner. 
12, 77-85, 1985. 

1951 Mysen, B. 0., D. Virgo, C. M. Scarfe, and 
D. J. Cronin, Viscosity and structure of iron- 
and aluminum-bearing calcium silicate melts at 
1 atm, Amer. Mineral. 70, 487-498, 1985. 

1952 Dingwell, D. B., and B. 0. Mysen, Effects 
of water and fluorine on the viscosity of albite 
melt at high pressure: a preliminary investi- 
gation, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 74, 266-274, 
1985. 

1953 Mysen, B. 0., I. S. E. Carmichael, and D. 
Virgo, A comparison of iron redox ratios in 
silicate glasses determined by wet-chemical and 
57 Fe Mossbauer resonant absorption methods, 
Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 90, 101-106, 1985. 

1957 Mysen, B. 0., and D. Virgo, Iron-bearing 
silicate melts: relations between pressure and 
redox equilibria, Phys. Chem. Miner. 12, 191— 
200, 1985. 

1959 Mysen, B. 0., D. Virgo, and I. Kushiro, 
Experimental studies of condensation pro- 
cesses of silicate materials at low pressures 
and high temperatures: I. Phase equilibria in 
the system CaMgSi 2 6 -H 2 in the temperature 
range 1200°-1500°C and the pressure range 
(P m ) 10 ~ 6 to 10 " 9 bar, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 
75, 139-146, 1985. 

1960 Mysen, B. 0., and D. Virgo, Raman spectra 
and structure of fluorine- and water-bearing 
silicate glasses and melts, in Conference Vol- 
ume, Second International Conference on Ma- 
terials Characterization, R. A. Condrate and 
R. L. Snyder, eds., pp. 43-55, Plenum Pub., 
New York, 1985. 

1963 Mysen, B. 0., and D. Virgo, Structure and 
properties of fluorine-bearing aluminosilicate 
melts: the system Na^O-Al^-SiCVF at 1 atm, 
Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 91, 205-220, 1985. 

Mysen, B. 0., Relations between structure, 

redox equilibria of iron, and properties of mag- 
matic liquids, in Advances in Physical Geo- 



chemistry, L. L. Perchukand I. Kushiro, eds., 
Springer- Verlag, New York, in press. 
_ Mysen, B. 0., Structure and petrologically 
important properties of silicate melts relevant 
to natural magmatic liquids, in Mineralogical 
Association of Canada (MAC) Short Course 
Lecture Notes on Silicate Melts, CM. Scarfe, 
ed., in press. 



Else-Ragnhild Neumann 

1944 Mysen, B. 0., D. Virgo, E.-R. Neumann, 
and F. A. Seifert, Redox equilibria and the 
structural states of ferric and ferrous iron in 
melts in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2 3 -Si0 2 -Fe- 
0: relationships between redox equilibria, melt 
structure and liquidus phase equilibria, Amer. 
Mineral. 70, 317-331, 1985. 

Pascal Richet 

1941 Richet, P. , and Y. Bottinga, Heat capacity 

of aluminum-free liquid silicates, Geochim. 

Cosmochim. Acta U9, 471-486, 1985. 

Daniel J. Schulze 

Schulze, D. J., Calcium anomalies in the 

mantle and a possible subducted metaserpen- 
tinite origin for diamonds, Nature, in press. 

Friedrich A. Seifert 

1937 Mysen, B. 0., D. Virgo, and F. A. Seifert, 
Relationships between properties and struc- 
ture of aluminosilicate melts, Amer. Mineral. 
70, 88-105, 1985. 

1944 Mysen, B. 0., D. Virgo, E.-R. Neumann, 
and F. A. Seifert, Redox equilibria and the 
structural states of ferric and ferrous iron in 
melts in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2 3 -Si0 2 -Fe- 
0: relationships between redox equilibria, melt 
structure and liquidus phase equilibria, Amer. 
Mineral. 70, 317-331, 1985. 

Shiv K. Sharma 

1962 Sharma, S. K., H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and 
J. A. Xu, Measurement of stress in diamond 
anvils with micro-Raman spectroscopy, /. Ra- 
man Spectros., in press. 

Martin R. Sharpe 

Irvine, T. N., and M. R. Sharpe, Magma 

Mixing and the Origin of Stratiform Oxide Ore 
Zones in the Bushveld and Stillwater Com- 
plexes, Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 
London, in press. 

David Virgo 

1937 Mysen, B. 0., D. Virgo, and F. A. Seifert, 
Relationships between properties and struc- 
ture of aluminosilicate melts, Amer. Mineral. 
70, 88-105, 1985. 

1944 Mysen, B. 0., D. Virgo, E.-R. Neumann, 
and F. A. Seifert, Redox equilibria and the 
structural states of ferric and ferrous iron in 



140 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 




Geophysical Laboratory staff, May 1985. Front row (listed from left to right): D. Rumble, III, D. 
Virgo, B. 0. Mysen, J. D. Frantz, L. W. Finger, P. M. Bell, F. Chayes, H. S. Yoder, Jr., T. C. 
Hoering, P. E. Hare, H. K. Mao, T. N. Irvine, M. L. Estep, R. M. Hazen. Second row: G. E. Mun- 
cill, A. Y. Au, M. W. Schaefer, D. B. Dingwell, R. J. Hemley, A. M. Hofmeister, H. Lowenstam, K. 
A. Goettel, P. Richet, T. W. Stafford, Jr., A. P. Gize, A. P. Jephcoat. Third row: N. Z. Boctor, J. 
Xu, M. Jenkins, D. M. Petry, J. M. Straub, M. B. Mattingly, L. Lela, C. G. Hadidiacos, D. J. 
George, Ji-an Xu, M. E. Imlay. Back Row: L. B. Patrick, H. L. Lutz, D. Ratliff, M. C. Ferguson, 
Jr., C. A. Batten, A. J. Antoszyk, S. D. Coley, R. R. Dingus. Not present: F. R. Boyd, L. Ci- 
fuentes, I. Kushiro, H.L. Moore. 



melts in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2 3 -Si0 2 -Fe- 
0: relationships between redox equilibria, melt 
structure and liquidus phase equilibria, Amer. 
Mineral. 70, 317-331, 1985. 

1945 Virgo, D., and B. 0. Mysen, The structural 
state of iron in oxidized vs. reduced glasses at 
1 atm: a 57 Fe Mossbauer study, Phys. Chem. 
Miner. 12, 65-76, 1985. 

1947 Mysen, B. 0., and D. Virgo, Interaction be- 
tween fluorine and silica in quenched melts on 
the joins Si0 2 -A1F 3 and Si0 2 -NaF determined 
by Raman spectroscopy, Phys. Chem. Miner. 
12, 77-85, 1985. 

1951 Mysen, B. 0., D. Virgo, C. M. Scarfe, and 
D. J. Cronin, Viscosity and structure of iron- 
and aluminum-bearing calcium silicate melts at 
1 atm, Amer. Mineral. 70, 487-498, 1985. 

1953 Mysen, B. 0., I. S. E. Carmichael, and D. 
Virgo, A comparison of iron redox ratios in 
silicate glasses determined by wet-chemical and 
57 Fe Mossbauer resonant absorption methods, 
Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 90, 101-106, 1985. 

1957 Mysen, B. 0., and D. Virgo, Iron-bearing 
silicate melts: relations between pressure and 
redox equilibria, Phys. Chem. Miner. 12, 191— 
200, 1985. 

1959 Mysen, B. 0., D. Virgo, and I. Kushiro, 
Experimental studies of condensation pro- 
cesses of silicate materials at low pressures 



and high temperatures: I. Phase equilibria in 
the system CaMgSi 2 6 -H 2 in the temperature 
range 1200°-1500°C and the pressure range 
(P H2 ) 10 _6 to 10 ~ 9 bar, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 
75, 139-146, 1985. 

1960 Mysen, B. 0., and D. Virgo, Raman spectra 
and structure of fluorine- and water-bearing 
silicate glasses and melts, in Conference Vol- 
ume, Second International Conference on Ma- 
terials Characterization, R. A. Condrate and 
R. L. Snyder, eds., pp. 43-55, Plenum Pub., 
New York, 1985. 

1963 Mysen, B. 0., and D. Virgo, Structure and 
properties of fluorine-bearing aluminosilicate 
melts: the system Na 2 0-Al 2 3 -Si0 2 -F at 1 atm, 
Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 91, 205-220, 1985. 



Ji-an Xu 

1939 Mao, H. K. , J. Xu, and P. M. Bell, Pressure- 
induced infrared spectra of hydrogen to 542 
kbar, in High Pressure in Science and Tech- 
nology, Part 3, C. Homan, R. K. MacCrone, 
and E. Whalley, eds., pp. 327-331, Elsevier, 
Amsterdam, 1984. 

1948 Xu, J., H. K. Mao, and P. M. Bell, Position- 
sensitive x-ray diffraction: hydrostatic com- 
pressibility of argon, tantalum, and copper to 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



141 



769 kbar, High Temp. -High Pressures 16, 495- 
499, 1984. 

1962 Sharma, S. K., H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and 
J. A. Xu, Measurement of stress in diamond 
anvils with micro-Raman spectroscopy, J. Ra- 
man Spectros., in press. 

1968 Mao, H. K., J. Xu, and P. M. Bell, Calibra- 
tion of the ruby pressure gauge to 800 kbar 
under quasihydrostatic conditions, J. Geo- 
phys. Res., in press. 

Bell, P. M., J. Xu, and H. K. Mao, Static 

compression of gold and copper and calibration 
of the ruby pressure scale to pressures to 1.8 
megabars, in Proceedings of the Fourth Amer- 
ican Physical Society (APS) Topical Confer- 
ence on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter, 
Y. Gupta, ed. , in press. 



. Ross, M., H. K. Mao, P. M. Bell, and J. Xu, 
The equation of state of dense argon: a com- 
parison of shock and static studies, in Pro- 
ceedings of the Fourth American Physical So- 
ciety (APS) Topical Conference on Shock Waves 
in Condensed Matter, Y. Gupta, ed., in press. 



Hatten S. Yoder, Jr. 

Yoder, H. S., Jr., and F. Chayes, Linear 

alkali correlation in oceanic alkali basalts, Bull. 
Geol. Soc. Finland, in press. 

Boctor, N. Z., and H. S. Yoder, Jr., Pe- 
trology of some melilite-bearing rocks from Cape 
Province, Republic of South Africa: relation- 
ship to kimberlites, Amer. J. Sci., in press. 

Yoder, H. S., Jr., Trends in the education 

of earth scientists, J. Geol. Educ, in press. 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



Reprints of the numbered publications list- 
ed below can be obtained at no charge from 
the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 
5241 Broad Branch Rd., N. W., Washington, 
D.C. 20015. When ordering, please give re- 
print number(s). 

Charles L. Angevine 

4722 Angevine, C. L., D. L. Turcotte, and J. R. 
Ockendon, Geometrical form of aseismic ridges, 
volcanoes, and seamounts, /. Geophys. Res. 
89, 11,287-11,292, 1984. 

4723 Boss, A. P., C. L. Angevine, and I. S. Sacks, 
Finite-amplitude models of convection in the 
early mantle, Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 36, 328- 
336, 1984. 

Kirk D. Borne 

4772 Borne, K. D., Interacting binary galaxies. 
I. A numerical model and preliminary results, 
Astrophys. J. 287, 503-522, 1984. 

4773 Hoessel, J. G., K. D. Borne, and D. P. 
Schneider, The dynamics of four multiple-nu- 
clei brightest cluster galaxies, Astrophys. J. 
293, 94-101, 1985. 

Alan P. Boss 

4723 Boss, A. P. , C. L. Angevine, and I. S. Sacks, 
Finite-amplitude models of convection in the 
early mantle, Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 36, 328- 
336, 1984. 

4730 Boss, A. P., Three-dimensional calculations 
of the formation of the presolar nebula from a 
slowly rotating cloud, Icarus 61, 3-9, 1985. 

4774 Boss, A. P. , Collapse and formation of stars, 
Sci. Amer. 252, 40-45, 1985. 

4775 Boss, A. P., Velocity fields in binary pro- 
tostellar clouds: an alternative to retrograde 
rotation, Astrophys. J. 288, L25-L28, 1985. 

4778 Boss, A. P., and I. S. Sacks, Formation and 



growth of deep mantle plumes, Geophys. J. 
Roy. Astron. Soc. 80, 241-255, 1985. 

4809 Boss, A. P., and H. Mizuno, Dynamic fission 
instability of dissipative protoplanets, Icarus 
63, 134-152, 1985. 

4810 Mizuno, H. , and A. P. Boss, Tidal disruption 
of dissipative planetesimals, Icarus 63, 109- 
133, 1985. 

Boss, A. P., Phase transitions and the for- 
mation of stars, Nature, in press. 

Boss, A. P. , The origin of the moon, Science, 

in press. 

Boss, A. P., and S. J. Peale, Dynamical con- 
straints on the origin of the Moon, in The Or- 
igin of the Moon, W. K. Hartmann, R. J. Phil- 
lips, and G. J. Taylor, eds., Lunar and Pla- 
netary Institute, Houston, Texas, in press. 

Louis Brown 

4780 Brown, L., J. Klein, and R. Middleton, 
Anomalous isotopic concentrations in the sea 
off Southern California, Geochim. Cosmo- 
chim. Acta 1>9, 153-157, 1985. 

4783 Middleton, R., J. Klein, L. Brown, and F. 
Tera, 10 Be in commercial beryllium, Nuclear 
Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B5, 511-513, 1984. 

4784 Pavich, M. J., L. Brown, J. N. Valette-Sil- 
ver, J. Klein, and R. Middleton, 10 Be analysis 
of a Quaternary weathering profile in the Vir- 
ginia Piedmont, Geology 13, 39-41, 1985. 

Barschall, H. H., and L. Brown, Early es- 
timates of the strength of the nuclear spin- 
orbit force, in Foundations of Physics, in press. 

Brown, L., F. Tera, N. Valette-Silver, M. 

J. Pavich, J. Klein, and R. Middleton, Appli- 
cation of 10 Be to the study of erosion and sed- 
iment transport, in Proceedings of the Uth Fed- 
eral Inter-agency Sedimentation Conference, 
Las Vegas, Nevada, in press. 

Tera, F., L. Brown, J. Morris, I. S. Sacks, 

J. Klein, and R. Middleton, Sediment incor- 



142 



poration in island-arc magmas: inferences from 
10 Be, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, in press. 

David Burstein 

4814 Burstein, D., and V. C. Rubin, The distri- 
bution of mass in spiral galaxies, Astrophys. 
J. 297, 423-435, 1985. 

4789 Rubin, V. C, D. Burstein, W. K. Ford, Jr., 
and N. Thonnard, Rotation velocities of 16 Sa 
galaxies and a comparison of Sa, Sb, and Sc 
rotation properties, Astrophys. J. 289, 81-104, 
1985. 

Richard W. Carlson 

4790 Carlson, R. W., Isotopic constraints on Co- 
lumbia River flood basalt genesis and the na- 
ture of the subcontinental mantle, Geochim. 
Cosmochim. Acta 1*8, 2357-2372, 1984. 

4791 Chyi, M. S., D. A. Crerar, R. W. Carlson, 
and R. F. Stallard, Hydrothermal Mn-deposits 
of the Franciscan Assemblage, II. Isotope and 
trace element geochemistry, and implications 
for hydrothermal convection at spreading cen- 
ters, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 71, 31-45, 1984. 

4805 Hart, W. K., and R. W. Carlson, Distri- 
bution and geochronology of Steens Mountain- 
type basalts from the northwestern Great Bas- 
in, IsochronfWest k3, 5-10, 1985. 

Silver, P. G., R. W. Carlson, P. Bell, and 

P. Olson, Mantle structure and dynamics: a 
Carnegie Institution workshop, Trans. Amer. 
Geophys. Union, in press. 

Winston W. Chan 

4794 Chan, W. W., and B. J. Mitchell, Intraplate 
earthquakes in northern Svalbard, Tectono- 
physics Ilk, 181-191, 1985. 

4795 Chan, W. W., and B. J. Mitchell, Surface 
wave dispersion, crustal structure, and sedi- 
ment thickness variations across the Barents 
shelf, Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 80, 329- 
344, 1985. 

Lina M. Echeverria 

Echeverria, L. M., and B. G. Aitken, Pyro- 

clastic rocks: another manifestation of ultra- 
mafic volcanism on Gorgona Island, Colombia, 
Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., in press. 

Sonia Esperanga 

Esperanca, S. , and Z. Garfunkel, Ultramafic 

nodules from the Mt. Carmel area (Karem Ma- 
haral Volcano), Israel, Lithos, in press. 

Esperanga, S., and J. R. Holloway, The or- 
igin of the high-K latites from Camp Creek, 
Arizona: constraints from experiments with 
variable f0 2 and a H 2o> Contrib. Mineral. Pe- 
trol. , in press. 

Mark D. Feigenson 

4798 Feigenson, M. D., Geochemistry of Kauai 
volcanics and a mixing model for the origin of 
Hawaiian alkali basalts, Contrib. Mineral. Pe- 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

trol. 87, 109-119, 1984. 
4799 Hofmann, A. W., M. D. Feigenson, and I. 
Raczek, Case studies on the origin of basalt: 
III. Petrogenesis of the Mauna Ulu eruption, 
Kilauea, 1969-1971, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 
88, 24-35, 1984. 

Scott E. Forbush 

4811 Forbush, S. E., Some recollections of ex- 
periences associated with cosmic-ray investi- 
gations, in Early History of Cosmic-Ray Stud- 
ies, Y. Sekido and H. Elliot, eds., pp. 167- 
169, D. Reidel Pub. Co. , Dordrecht, The Neth- 
erlands, 1985. 

W. Kent Ford, Jr. 

4771 Whitmore, B. C, V. C. Rubin, and W. K. 
Ford, Jr., Stellar and gas kinematics in disk 
galaxies, Astrophys. J. 287, 66-79, 1984. 

4789 Rubin, V. C, D. Burstein, W. K. Ford, Jr., 
and N. Thonnard, Rotation velocities of 16 Sa 
galaxies and a comparison of Sa, Sb, and Sc 
rotation properties, Astrophys. J. 289, 81-104, 
1985. 

4808 Schweizer, F., and W. K. Ford, Jr., Fine 
structure in elliptical galaxies, in New Aspects 
of Galaxy Photometry, proceedings of a meet- 
ing held in Toulouse, France, September 17- 
21, 1984 (Lecture Notes in Physics 232), J.-L. 
Nieto, ed., pp. 145-150, Springer- Verlag, 
Berlin, 1985. 

William K. Hart 

4776 Hart, W. K. , Chemical and isotopic evidence 
for mixing between depleted and enriched 
mantle, northwestern U.S.A., Geochim. Cos- 
mochim. Acta J>9, 131-144, 1985. 

4805 Hart, W. K., and R. W. Carlson, Distri- 
bution and geochronology of Steens Mountain- 
type basalts from the northwestern Great Bas- 
in, IsochronfWest US, 5-10, 1985. 

Albrecht W. Hofmann 

4799 Hofmann, A. W., M. D. Feigenson, and I. 
Raczek, Case studies on the origin of basalt: 
III. Petrogenesis of the Mauna Ulu eruption, 
Kilauea, 1969-1971, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 
88, 24-35, 1984. 

Deidre A. Hunter 

4777 Lamb, S. A., J. S. Gallagher III, M. S. 
Hjellming, and D. A. Hunter, WE observa- 
tions of amorphous hot galaxies, Astrophys. J. 
291, 63-71, 1985. 

4804 Hunter, D. A., and J. S. Gallagher III, In- 
frared colors of blue irregular galaxies, As- 
tron. J. 90, 1457-1463, 1985. 

4806 Hunter, D. A., and J. S. Gallagher III, Ir- 
regular galaxies with extended HI emission, 
Astron. J. 90, 1789-1795, 1985. 

4807 Hunter, D. A. , and J. S. Gallagher III, Star- 
forming properties and histories of dwarf ir- 
regular galaxies: down but not out, Astrophys. 
J. Suppl. 58, 533-560, 1985. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



143 



Mizuho Ishida 

4779 Ishida, M. , The spatial distribution of earth- 
quake hypocenters and the three-dimensional 
velocity structure in the Kanto-Tokai District, 
Japan, /. Phys. Earth 32, 399-422, 1984. 

David E. James 

4781 Boily, M. , C. Brooks, and D. E. James, Geo- 
chemical characteristics of the Late Mesozoic 
Andean volcanics, in Andean Magmatism 
Chemical and Isotopic Constraints (sympos- 
ium held by American Geophysical Union in 
Baltimore, May 1983), R. S. Harmon and B. 
A. Barreiro, eds., pp. 190-202, Shiva Publish- 
ing Ltd., Cheshire, England, 1984. 

4782 James, D. E., Quantitative models for crus- 
tal contamination in the central and northern 
Andes, in Andean Magmatism Chemical and 
Isotopic Constraints (symposium held by 
American Geophysical Union in Baltimore, May 
1983), R. S. Harmon and B. A. Barreiro, eds., 
pp. 124-138, Shiva Publishing Ltd., Cheshire, 
England, 1984. 

David C. Koo 

4785 Koo, D. C, Optical multicolors: A poor per- 
son's Z machine for galaxies, Astron. J. 90, 
418-440, 1985. 

4786 Windhorst, R. A., G. K. Miley, F. N. Owen, 
R. G. Kron, and D. C. Koo, Sub-millijansky 
1.4 GHz source counts and multicolor studies 
of weak radio galaxy populations, Astrophys. 
J. 289, 494-513, 1985. 

4800 Kron, R. G., D. C. Koo, and R. A. Win- 
dhorst, A deep Westerbork survey of areas 
with multicolor Mayall 4 m plates. III. Pho- 
tometry and spectroscopy of faint source iden- 
tifications, Astron. Astrophys. U6, 38-58, 1985. 

Typhoon Lee 

Lee, T., and F. Tera, The meteoritic chro- 
mium isotopic composition and limits for ra- 
dioactive Mn-53 in the early solar system, Geo- 
chim. Cosmochim. Acta, in press. 

Tetsu Masuda 

4803 Silver, P. G. , and T. Masuda, A source-ex- 
tent analysis of the Imperial Valley earth- 
quake of October 15, 1979, and the Victoria 
earthquake of June 9, 1980, </. Geophys. Res. 
90, 7639-7651, 1985. 

Hiroshi Mizuno 

4809 Boss, A. P., and H. Mizuno, Dynamic fission 
instability of dissipative protoplanets, Icarus 
63, 134-152, 1985. 

4810 Mizuno, H. , and A. P. Boss, Tidal disruption 
of dissipative planetesimals, Icarus 63, 109- 
133, 1985. 

Julie D. Morris 

Tera, F., L. Brown, J. D. Morris, I. S. Sacks, 

J. Klein, and R. Middleton, Sediment incor- 



poration in island-arc magmas: inferences from 
10 Be, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, in press. 

Vera C. Rubin 

4771 Whitmore, B. C, V. C. Rubin, and W. K. 
Ford, Jr., Stellar and gas kinematics in disk 
galaxies, Astrophys. J. 287, 66-79, 1984. 

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Limited reprint supplies are available only 
for the references preceded by an asterisk. 
Please order by reprint number. Address re- 
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brightest stars in the dwarf galaxy Sextans B 
compared with those in Sextans A., Astron. 
J. 90, 1019-1026, 1985. 

2905 Tammann, G. A., and A. Sandage, The infall 
velocity toward Virgo, the Hubble constant, 
and a search for motion toward the microwave 
background, Astrophys. J. 29k, 81-95, 1985. 

2950 Sandage, A., and G. A. Tammann, The dy- 
namical parameters of the expanding universe 
as they constrain homogeneous world models 
with and without A, Inner and Outer Space, 
Fermilab, University of Chicago Press, Chi- 
cago, in press. 

2947 Binggeli, B., A. Sandage, and G. A. Tam- 
mann, Studies of the Virgo cluster. II. A cat- 
alog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo cluster area, 
Astron. J. 90, 1681-1758, 1985. 

2949 Sandage, A., and G. Carlson, The brightest 
stars in nearby galaxies. VI. Cepheids and the 
brightest stars in WLM, Astron. J. 90, 1464- 
1473, 1985. 

2930 Sandage, A., B. Binggeli, and G. A. Tam- 
mann, Studies of the Virgo cluster. V. Lu- 
minosity functions of the Virgo cluster gal- 
axies, Astron. J. 90, 1759-1771, 1985. 

2954 Sandage, A., and J. Bedke, Candidate gal- 
axies for study of the local velocity field and 
distance scale using Space Telescope. I. The 
most easily resolved, Astron. J. 90, 1992-2000, 
1985. 

2955 Sandage, A., and J. Bedke, Candidate gal- 
axies for study of the local velocity field and 
distance scale with Space Telescope. II. The 
more difficult cases, Astron. J. 90, 2001-2005, 
1985. 

2956 Sandage, A., and J. Bedke, Candidate gal- 
axies for study of the local velocity field and 
distance scale using Space Telescope. III. Gal- 
axies in the Virgo cluster core, Astron. J. 90, 
2006-2008, 1985. 

2932 Arp, H., and A. Sandage, Spectra of the two 
brightest objects in the amorphous galaxy NGC 
1569: superluminous young star clusters — or 
stars in a nearby peculiar galaxy, Astron. J. 
90, 1163-1171, 1985. 



Hoffman, G. L., G. Helou, E. E. Salpeter, 

and A. Sandage, H I properties of dwarf ir- 
regular galaxies in the Virgo cluster, Astro- 
phys. J. (Lett.) 289, L15-L18, 1985. 

Stephen A. Shectman 

*2872 Shectman, S. A., Clusters of galaxies from 

the Shane- Wirtanen counts, Astrophys. J. 

Suppl. Ser. 57, 77-90, 1985. 
*2886 Dressier, A., I. B. Thompson, and S. A. 

Shectman, Statistics of emission-line galaxies 

in rich clusters, Astrophys. J. 288, 481-486, 

1985. 
2935 Beers, T. C, G. W. Preston, and S. A. 

Shectman, A search for stars of very low metal 

abundance. I., Astron. J. 90, 2089-2102, 1985. 

Herschel B. Snodgrass 

*2982 Snodgrass, H. B., Solar torsional oscilla- 
tions: A net pattern with wavenumber 2 as 
artifact, Astrophys. J. 291, 339-343, 1985. 

*2863 Snodgrass, H. B., and R. Howard, Limits 
on photospheric Doppler signatures for solar 
giant cells, Astrophys. J. 28k, 848-855, 1984. 
2882 Snodgrass, H. B., Separation of large-scale 
photospheric Doppler patterns, Solar Phys. 
9k, 13-31, 1984. 
2889 Snodgrass, H. B., and R. Howard, Torsional 
oscillations of low mode, Solar Phys. 95, 221- 
228, 1985. 

Thomas Y. Steiman-Cameron 

2867 David, L. P., R. H. Durisen, and T. Y. Stei- 
man-Cameron, Preferred orbit planes in triax- 
ial galaxies. II. Tumbling about a nonprincipal 
axis, Astrophys. J. 286, 53-61, 1984. 

*2924 Steiman-Cameron, T. Y., H. R. Johnson, R. 
K. Honeycutt, Chromospheric activity and TiO 
Bands in M giants, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 291, 
L51-L54, 1985. 

2922 David, L. P., T. Y. Steiman-Cameron, and 
R. H. Durisen, Preferred orbit planes in tum- 
bling triaxial galaxies. III. Application to the 
Schwarzschild ellipsoid, Astrophys. J. 295, 65- 
72, 1985. 

Imamura, J. N., T. Y. Steiman-Cameron, 

and R. Durisen, High speed photometry of AN 
UMa, in Proc. of the Ninth North American 
Workshop on Cataclysmic Variables, P. Szko- 
dy, ed., pp. 24-26, Port Townsend, Washing- 
ton, in press. 

Peter B. Stetson 

2919 Stetson, P. B., and M. P. FitzGerald, Re- 
mote OB stars in Puppis, Astron. J. 90, 1060- 
1075, 1985. 

2962 Suntzeff, N., E. Olszewski, and P. B. Stet- 
son, The kinematics and chemical abundance 
of the remote globular cluster AM-1, Astron. 
J. 90, 1481-1485, 1985. 

Nicholas B. Suntzeff 
*2909 Kinman, T. D., R. P. Kraft, E. Friel, and 
N. B. Suntzeff, Metal abundances of RR Lyrae 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



149 




Fisheye-lens view taken on the occasion of the replacement of the wooden cat- 
walk on the 150-foot solar tower telescope at Mount Wilson. Seen at the center is 
the 2.5-meter Hooker telescope. Shown: Dave Carr and Tony Misch. Photo by 
Steve Padilla. 



variables in selected galactic star fields. IV. 
The Lick astrograph field RR I (MWF 361) in 
Serpens and Ophiuchus, Astron. J. 90, 95-100, 
1985. 

2962 Suntzeff, N., E. Olszewski, and P. B. Stet- 
son, The kinematics and chemical abundance 
of the remote globular cluster AM-1, Astron. 
J. 90, 1481-1485, 1985. 

2897 Dominy, J. F., G. Wallerstein, and N. B. 
Suntzeff, Line doubling in the 272-day-long pe- 
riod variable V Cancri, Mon. Not. Roy. As- 
tron. Soc. 212, 671-675, 1985. 

2937 Gilliland, R. L., E. Kemper, and N. Suntz- 
eff, WZ Saggitae: time-resolved spectroscopy 
during quiescence, Astrophys. J., in press. 

2936 Hutchings, J. B., D. Crampton, A. P. Cow- 
ley, E. Olszewski, I. B. Thompson, and N. 
Suntzeff, The optical orbit of the X-ray pulsar 
binary 0535-668 ( = A0538-66), Publ. Astron. 
Soc. Pac. 97, 418-422, 1985. 

Ian B. Thompson 

♦2918 Thompson, I. B., and J. D. Landstreet, The 
extraordinary magnetic variation of the heli- 
um-strong star HD 37776: a quadrupole field 



configuration, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 289, L9- 
L13, 1985. 

*2886 Dressier, A., I. B. Thompson, and S. A. 
Shectman, Statistics of emission-line galaxies 
in rich clusters, Astrophys. J. 288, 481-486, 
1985. 

*2953 Cowley, A. P., D. Crampton, J. B. Hutch- 
ings, and LB. Thompson, On two WR stars 
in the Large Magellanic Cloud: The high ve- 
locity of BR 52 and a newly discovered WN 
star, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 96, 968-972, 1984. 
2951 Crampton, D., A. P. Cowley, I. B. Thomp- 
son, and J. B. Hutchings, Further spectros- 
copy of LMC-X-ray candidates, Astron. J. 90, 
43-48, 1985. 

*2952 Hutchings, J. B., D. Crampton, A. P. Cow- 
ley, and I. B. Thompson, R31: a massive 
+ W-R star binary in the Small Magellanic 
Cloud, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 96, 811-816, 
1984. 
2936 Hutchings, J. B., D. Crampton, A. P. Cow- 
ley, E. Olszewski, I. B. Thompson, and N. 
Suntzeff, The optical orbit of the X-ray pulsar 
binary 0535-668 ( = A0538-66), Publ. Astron. 
Soc. Pac. 97, 418-422, 1985. 



150 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Arthur H. Vaughan, Jr. 

*2906 Vaughan, A. H., The magnetic activity of 
sunlike stars, Science 225, 793-800, 1984. 

*2883 Duncan, D. K., S. L. Baliunas, R. W. Noyes, 
A. H. Vaughan, J. Frazer, and H. H. Lanning, 
Chromospheric emission and rotation of the 
Hyades lower main sequence, Publ. Astron. 
Soc. Pac. 96, 707-713, 1984. 

2891 Baliunas, S. L., J. H. Home, A. Porter, D. 
K. Duncan, J. Frazer, H. Lanning, A. Misch, 
J. Mueller, R. W. Noyes, D. Soyumer, A. H. 
Vaughan, and L. Woodard, Time series mea- 
surements of chromospheric CA II H and K 
emission in cool stars and the search for dif- 
ferential rotation, Astrophys. J., in press. 

Noyes, R. W., N. 0. Weiss, and A. H. 

Vaughan, The relation between stellar rota- 
tion rate and activity cycle periods, Astrophys. 
J. 287, 769-773, 1984. 



Rogier A. Windhorst 

*2921 Windhorst, R. A., G. K. Miley, F. N. Owen, 
R. G. Kron, and D. C. Koo, Sub-Millijansky 
1.4 GHz source counts and multicolor studies 
of weak radio galaxy populations, Astrophys. 
J. 289, 494-513, 1985. 

2904 Kron, R. G., D. C. Koo, and R. A. Win- 
dhorst, A deep Westerbork survey of areas 
with multicolor Mayall 4-m plates. III. Pho- 
tometry and spectroscopy of faint radio source 
identifications, Astron. Astrophys. 1J>6, 38-58, 
1985. 

Windhorst, R. A., The cosmological evo- 
lution of radio sources, in Cosmology, IAU 
Commission No. 47, J. Audouze, ed., D. Reidel 
Publ. Co., Dordrecht, The Netherlands, in 
press. 



ADMINISTRATION 



James D. Ebert 

Ebert, James D. , Cell interactions: the roots 

of a century of research, Biol. Bull, (suppl.) 
168, 80-87, 1985. 

Ebert, James D., Carnegie Institution of 

Washington and marine biology: Naples, Woods 
Hole, and Tortugas, Biol. Bull, (suppl.) 168, 
172-182, 1985. 

Ebert, James D., Evolving patterns for ex- 
cellence: a brief comparison of the organization 
and management of the Cold Spring Harbor 



Laboratory and the Marine Biological Labo- 
ratory, Biol. Bull, (suppl.) 168, 183-186, 1985. 
_ Stoto, Michael A., and James D. Ebert, 
Sounding board: the organizational structure 
of the NIH, New Engl. J. Med. 312, 1634- 
1637, 1985. 



Margaret L. A. MacVicar 

MacVicar, L. A. M., The information age, 

Educ. Horizons, May 1985. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE INSTITUTION 



Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 
83, viii + 187 pages, 39 illustrations, December 
1984. 

CIW Newsletter, issued in November 1984, March 
1985, and June 1985. 

Perspectives in Science, 5th edition, recorded 
features for radio, with resumes, August 1984. 

Carnegie: The Catalog of the Carnegie Institu- 
tion of Washington, 198^-1985 and 1985-1986, 90 
pages, August 1984. 

The Earth's Core: How Does It Work?, Per- 
spectives in Science booklet number 1, 32 pages, 
25 illustrations, reprinted September 1984. 

Annual Report of the Director, Mount Wilson 



and Las Campanas Observatories, 1983-1984, 68 
pages, 21 illustrations. 

Ceramics for the Archaeologist (Publication 609), 
by Anna Shepard, xxxii + 132 pages, 191 illustra- 
tions, reprinted May 1985. 

The Hubble Atlas of Galaxies (Publication 618), 
by Allan Sandage, viii + 132 pages, 191 illustra- 
tions, reprinted May 1985. 

Condensed Collections of Thermodynamic For- 
mulas for One-Component and Binary Systems of 
Unit and Variable Mass (Publication 408B), by 
George Tunell, xviii + 294 pages, May 1985. 

Carnegie Evening, 1985, 16 pages, 8 illustra- 
tions, May 1985. 



Administrative Documents 



Staff Lists 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



Research Staff 

Donald D. Brown, Director 
Douglas M. Fambrough 
Nina V. Fedoroff 
Joseph G. Gall 
Steven L. McKnight 1 
Richard E. Pagano 
Allan C. Spradling 
Samuel Ward 

Staff Associates 

Sondra G. Lazarowitz 
Martin Snider 

Research Associates (Extramural) 

Bent Boving, Detroit, Michigan 
Igor B. Dawid, Bethesda, Maryland 
Robert L. DeHaan, Atlanta, Georgia 
Arthur T. Hertig, Boston, Massachusetts 
Irwin R. Konigsberg, Charlottesville, Vir- 
ginia 
Kenneth J. Muller, Miami, Florida 
Ronan O'Rahilly, Davis, California 
Elizabeth M. Ramsey, Washington, D.C. 
Ronald H. Reeder, Seattle, Washington 
Gerald M. Rubin, Berkeley, California 
Yoshiaki Suzuki, Okazaki City, Japan 

Postdoctoral Fellows and Grant-Sup- 
ported Associates 

Matthew Andrews, Fellow of the Damon 
Runyon- Walter Winchell Cancer Fund 2 

JoAnn Banks, Research Associate, Na- 
tional Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant 
(Fedoroff) 3 

Karen Bennett, Fellow of the NIH 

Lynn Cooley, Fellow of the Damon Run- 
yon- Walter Winchell Cancer Fund 4 

Lloyd Epstein, Research Associate, NIH 
Grant (Gall) 

Craig Findly, Research Associate, Amer- 
ican Cancer Society Grant (Gall) 5 



Kathy French, Research Associate, NIH 

Grant (Fambrough) 6 
Barbara Graves, Fellow of the Carnegie 

Institution of Washington (CIW) 1 
Mitrick Johns, Fellow of the Pioneer Hi- 
Bred International, Inc. 
Peter Johnson, Fellow of the Damon Run- 
yon- Walter Winchell Cancer Fund 1 
Laura Kalfayan, Fellow of the NIH 7 
Norman Karin, Fellow of the CIW 8 
Richard Kelley, Fellow of the NIH 
Gene Leys, Fellow of the NIH 
Samuel Kelly, United Agriseed Fellow 
Gene Leys, Fellow of the NIH 1 
Steven L'Hernault, Fellow of the NIH 
Naomi Lipsky, Fellow of the NIH 5 
Fritz Muller, Fellow of the Swiss National 

Fund 9 
Terry Orr- Weaver, Fellow of the Jane Cof- 
fin Childs Memorial Fund 
Mark Roth, Fellow of the Jane Coffin Childs 

Memorial Fund 1 
David Setzer, Fellow of the Jane Coffin 

Childs Memorial Fund 10 
Richard Sleight, Fellow of the NIH 
Kunio Takeyasu, Research Associate, NIH 

Grant (Fambrough) 
Michael Tamkun, Fellow of the Muscular 

Dystrophy Association 
William Taylor, Fellow of the NIH 
Steven Triezenberg, Fellow of the Helen 

Hay Whitney Foundation 1 
Frank Tufaro, Fellow of the NIH 1 
Paul Uster, Fellow of the CIW 
Kent Vrana, Fellow of the NIH 
Barbara Wakimoto, Fellow of the Helen 

Hay Whitney Foundation 5 
Allan Wolffe, Fellow of the European Mo- 
lecular Biology Organization 11 
Barry Wolitzky, Fellow of the Muscular 
Dystrophy Association 

Graduate Students 
Celeste Berg, Yale University 



154 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Susan Bromley, Yale University 2 
Eric Crawford, Johns Hopkins University 12 
Zaven Kaprielian, Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity 
Barbara Kirschner, Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity 
Michael Koval, Johns Hopkins University 13 
Fred Moshiri, Johns Hopkins University 9 
Diana Parker, Johns Hopkins Univeristy 14 
Suki Parks, Johns Hopkins University 
Mark Schlissel, Johns Hopkins University 

Medical School 15 
Jennifer Schwartz, Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity 
Diane Shakes, Johns Hopkins University 
Tony Ting, Johns Hopkins University 16 
Rahul Warrior, Yale University 
Steve Weinheimer, University of 
Washington 1 

Supporting Staff 

Betty Addison, Laboratory Helper 

Paul Blackwell, Custodian (part-time) 

Betty Conde, Technician 17 

Scott Downing, Technician 18 

Pat Englar, Administrative Assistant 

James Fenwick, Laboratory Helper 



Ernestine V. Flemmings, Laboratory 

Helper 
Pam Fornili, Technician 17 
Richard D. Grill, Photographer 
Virginia Hicks, Laboratory Helper 19 
Wilson Hoerichs, Building Engineer 
Mary E. Hogan, Technician 
Eddie Jordan, Senior Technician 
Jeff Kingsbury, Technician 3 
Robert Kingsbury, Technician 1 
Joseph Levine, Technician 
Loretta Litrenta, Bookkeeper/Clerk 20 
Thomas V. Malooly, Business Manager 19 
Jeffrey Malter, Librarian (part-time) 
Ona Martin, Senior Technician 
Thomas Miller, Custodian 19 
Christine Murphy, Technician 
Betty Lou Phebus, Bookkeeper/Clerk 21 
Earl Potts, Custodian 
Ophelia Rogers, Technician 
Susan Satchell, Business Manager 
Michael Sepanski, Technician 
Delores Somerville, Senior Technician 
Diane Thompson, Technician 
Joe Vokroy, Machinist 
Shirley Whitaker, Administrative 

Assistant 22 
Rhonda Young, Laboratory Helper 23 



^rom September 1, 1984 
2 From August 1, 1984 
3 From September 17, 1984 
4 From November 1, 1984 
5 To August 31, 1984 
6 To May 10, 1985 
7 To October 31, 1984 
8 From December 1, 1984 



9 ToJuly31, 1984 

10 To December 1, 1984 

u From October 1, 1984 

12 From February 4, 1985 

13 From January 31, 1985 

14 From January 31 to May 31, 1985 

15 To March 1, 1985 

16 From February 1, 1985 



17 To May 17, 1985 
18 To October 23, 1984 
19 To June 30, 1985 
20 From May 20, 1985 
21 To June 10, 1985 
22 From May 13, 1985 
^From January 17, 1985 



DEPARTMENT OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



Research Staff 

Joseph A. Berry 

Olle Bjorkman 

Winslow R. Briggs, Director 

Jeanette S. Brown 

Christopher Field 

David C. Fork, Acting Director 

C. Stacy French, Director Emeritus 

Arthur R. Grossman 

William M. Hiesey, Emeritus 

Malcolm A. Nobs, Emeritus 

William F. Thompson 

Research Associates 
Robin Chazdon 



Nona Chiariello 
Lon S. Kaufman 
Peggy Lemaux 



Postdoctoral Fellows 

Lise Caron, Ecole Normale Superieure, 
Paris, France 

Barbara Demmig, University of Wurz- 
burg, Lehrstuhl Botanik I, West Ger- 
many 

Dennis H. Greer, DSIR, Division of Plant 
Physicology, Palmerston North, New 
Zealand 1 



STAFF LISTS 



155 



Carnegie Institution of Washington Post- 
doctoral Fellows 

Grazyna Bialek-Bylka, Poznari Technical 
University, Poznari, Poland 

Annette W. Coleman, Senior Fellow, Brown 
University 2 

Pamela Conley 

Michael Dobres 

Jacques Duranton, Senior Fellow, Com- 
missariat a l'Energie Atomique, Saclay, 
France 3 

Terri Lomax, NSF Fellow 

Moritoshi lino 4 

Keith Mott 5 

Neil 0. Polans 6 

Anurag Sagar, McKnight Foundation Fel- 
low 

Jeffrey R. Seemann, McKnight Foundation 
Fellow 7 

Arindam Sen, Senior Fellow, Roswell Park 
Memorial Institute, Buffalo, New York 8 

Max Seyfried 

Susan C. Spiller 9 

Robert K. Togasaki, Senior Fellow, Indi- 
ana University 6 

John C. Watson 

Graduate Students 

J. Timothy Ball, Stanford University 
Tobias I. Baskin, Stanford Unversity 
Charlotte Borgeson, University of Califor- 
nia, Santa Cruz 10 
Eugenio deHostos, Stanford University 
Laura Green, Stanford University 
Elizabeth Newell, Stanford University 
James R. Shinkle, Stanford University 11 



David B. Stern, Stanford University 
Lawrence D. Talbott, Stanford University 

Undergraduate Students 

Robyn Cleland, Australian National Uni- 
versity, Canberra 12 

Stephen Herbert, University of 
Washington 13 

Supporting Staff 

Carol Abdelhamid, Technician 14 
Michael Arbuckle, Laboratory Technician 
J. Timothy Ball, Laboratory Technician 
Sabrina Bennahmias, Laboratory Techni- 
cian 
Anne Bang, Laboratory Technician 15 
Glenn Ford, Research Operations Manager 
Suzan Freas, Laboratory Technician 
John A. Gamon, Laboratory Technician 16 
Susan P. Gong, Technical Typist 17 
Karen L. B. Hall, Laboratory Technician 
Dorothy Horvat, Laboratory Technician 
Einar C. Ingebretson, Electrical Engineer 
Jerome P. Lapointe, Laboratory 

Technician 18 
Linda K. Morris, Laboratory Technician 19 
Frank Nicholson, Senior Technician 
Dorothy Marquis-Omer, Laboratory 

Technician 20 
Pedro F. Pulido, Technician 
Connie Shih, Laboratory Technician 
Mary A. Smith, Business Manager 
Loretta Tayabas, Department Secretary 
Rudolph Warren, Technician 
Aida E. Wells, Department Secretary 
Brian M. Welsh, Mechanical Engineer 



x To December 4, 1984 
2 To August 30, 1984 
3 To December 26, 1984 
4 To January 1, 1985 
5 To August 15, 1984 
6 To December 31, 1984 
7 To September 30, 1984 



8 To September 28, 1984 
To June 14, 1985 
10 ToJune 1, 1985 
n To June 28, 1985 
12 To April 23, 1985 
13 To February 28, 1985 
14 To January 31, 1985 



15 To June 18, 1985 
16 To August 10, 1984 
17 To January 18, 1985 
18 To September 5, 1984 
19 To October 15, 1984 
20 To March 15, 1985 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



Research Staff 

L. Thomas Aldrich, Emeritus 1 
Alan Paul Boss 
Louis Brown 
Richard W. Carlson 
W. Kent Ford, Jr. 2 



David E. James 
Typhoon Lee 3 
Alan T. Linde 
Vera C. Rubin 2 
I. Selwyn Sacks 
Francois Schweizer 2 




Department of Terrestrial Magnetism staff, July 1985. First row (listed from left to right): Kirk 
Borne, W. Kent Ford, Vera Rubin, George Wetherill, Bennie Harris, Linda Stryker. Second row: 
Alan Linde, Mary White, Julie Morris, Janice Dunlap, Fouad Tera, Francois Schweizer, Sonia Esper- 
an<ja, Deidre Hunter. Third row: Gui-Zhong Qi, Terry Stahl, Leah Monta, Mary Coder, Dorothy Dil- 
lin, Francis Dudas. Fourth row: John Smith, Michael Acierno, Tim Clarke, Winston Chan, Diglio 
Simoni, Hiroki Sato, Richard Carlson. Top row: Alan Boss, Thomas Aldrich, Ole Stecher, John Em- 
ler, John Graham, Louis Brown, William Key. 



Paul Silver 

Fouad Tera 

George W. Wetherill, Director 

Research Associates 

Charles Angevine 4 
Robert Lee Edmonds 5 
Hiroshi Mizuno 6 
Leonidas Ocola 
John Schneider 
Steven B. Shirey 
Linda L. Stryker 
Michael V. Torbett 7 
Nathalie Valette-Silver 
T. C. Vanajakshi 8 

Senior Fellows 

Hiroyuki Fukuyama 9 

David Koo 10 

Tsutomu Murase, Senior Visiting Fellow, 

Institute of Vocational Training, Saga- 

mihara, Japan 
Gui-Zhong Qi 

Postdoctoral Fellows 
Kirk Borne 



W. Winston Chan 

Timothy J. Clarke 11 

Sonia Esperanca 12 

Deidre Hunter, Richard B. Roberts Fellow 13 

Julie Morris 

Hiroki Sato 14 



Students and Predoctoral Fellows 

Ines Cifuentes, Columbia University 15 
Francis 0. Dudas, Pennsylvania State 

University 16 
Allison Lung, American University 17 
Diglio A. Simoni C, The College of 

Wooster 18 



Supporting Staff 

Michael Acierno, Computer Programmer 19 

Georg Bartels, Instrument Maker 

Gary Bors, Maintenance Technician 

Adina Bowles, Clerk-Typist 20 

Richard C. Carlson, Word Processor Op- 
erator 

Mary McDermott Coder, Editorial Assis- 
tant 

Dorothy B. Dillin, Librarian 



STAFF LISTS 

John B. Doak, Electronics Research 

Specialist 21 
Janice Dunlap, Administrative Assistant 

for PASSCAL 20 
John A. Emler, Laboratory Technician 
Maura Fitz-Patrick, Receptionist 22 
Bennie Harris, Caretaker 
William E. Key, Caretaker 
Caroline Busch Linde, Fiscal Assistant 23 
Leah Monta, Accounts Payable Clerk 24 



157 

Ben K. Pandit, Electronics Specialist 

Glenn R. Poe, Electronics Research Spe- 
cialist 

Akiwata Mayi Sawyer, Research Assistant 

Michael Seemann, Design Engineer — Me- 
chanical, Shop Manager 

John F. Smith, Caretaker 20 

Terry L. Stahl, Fiscal Officer 

Kirsten Turner, Clerk-Typist 25 

Mary E. White, Receptionist 26 



^romJuly 1, 1984 

2 Holds additional appointment as Adjunct Staff 
Member, Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Ob- 
servatories 

3 Resigned, December 26, 1984 

4 To July 31, 1984 

5 From September 24, 1984 

6 To December 19, 1984 

7 To August 15, 1984 

8 To March 31, 1985 

9 Died, August 10, 1984 

10 To October 14, 1984 

n From January 2, 1985 

12 From January 3, 1985 



13 From August 28, 1984 
14 From June 4, 1985 
15 From December 3, 1984 
16 From September 10, 1984 
17 From September 1, 1984 
18 From May 9, 1985 
19 From November 19, 1984 
20 Temporary employee 
21 Retired, June 30, 1985 
22 Resigned, October 29, 1984 
^Resigned, May 17, 1985 
^From May 1, 1985 
25 To January 31, 1985 
26 From May 8, 1985 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY 



Research Staff 

Peter M. Bell 

Francis R. Boyd, Jr. 

Felix Chayes 

Marilyn L. F. Estep 

Larry W. Finger 

John D. Frantz 

Kenneth A. Goettel 1 

P. Edgar Hare 

Robert M. Hazen 

Thomas C. Hoering 

T. Neil Irvine 

Ikuo Kushiro 2 

Ho-kwang Mao 

Bj0rn My sen 

Douglas Rumble III 3 

David Virgo 

Hatten S. Yoder, Jr., Director 

Keck Earth Sciences Research Scholar 
Gregory E. Muncill 4 

Research Associates 

Andrew Y. Au 5 
Martha W. Schaefer 6 
Ji-an Xu 7 



Postdoctoral Fellows 

Donald B. Dingwell 8 
Andrew P. Gize 
Russell J. Hemley 8 
Anne M. Hofmeister 9 
Pascal Richet 10 
Daniel J. Schulze 11 
Thomas W. Stafford, Jr. 12 

Predoctoral Fellows 

Andrew P. Jephcoat, Johns Hopkins 

University 6 
L. A. Cifuentes, University of Delaware 13 

Research Assistant 

Norma K. Pannell, George Washington 
University 14 

Supporting Staff 

Andrew J. Antoszyk, Instrument Maker 
Charlie A. Batten, Shop Foreman and In- 
strument Maker 
Stephen D. Coley, Sr., Machinist 
Roy R. Dingus, Instrument Maker 15 
Mack C. Ferguson, Jr., Custodian 
David J. George, Electronics Technician 






158 



Christos Hadidiacos, Electronics Engineer 
Marjorie E. Imlay, Assistant to the 

Director 16 
Michael Jenkins, Secretary-Receptionist 17 
Lavonne Lela, Librarian-Stenographer 18 
Harvey J. Lutz, Clerk and Technician 
Mabel B. Mattingly, Stenographer 



*To August 31, 1984 

2 Leave of absence, University of Tokyo 

3 To June 30, 1985. Leave of absence for temporary 

service at National Science Foundation 
Postdoctoral Fellow to January 31, 1985 
Postdoctoral Fellow to September 30, 1984 
6 To June 30, 1985 
7 To February 28, 1985 
8 From September 1, 1984 
9 Research Associate to October 15, 1984 
10 To June 30, 1984 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

Harvey L. Moore, Building Engineer 19 
Lawrence B. Patrick, Custodial Supervisor 
Dolores M. Petry, Editor and Librarian 
David Ratliff , Jr. , Custodian and Thin-Sec- 
tion Technician 
A. David Singer, Executive Officer 20 
John A. Straub, Accountant 



u To September 30, 1984. Position as Assistant Pro- 
fessor at Queen's University, Ontario 
12 From September 1, 1984 
13 From July 1, 1984 
14 To April 30, 1985 
15 From December 10, 1984 
16 Stenographer to March 31, 1985 
17 From May 16, 1985 
18 From April 1, 1985 
19 Retired, June 30, 1985 
20 Died, March 13, 1985 



MOUNT WILSON AND LAS CAMPANAS OBSERVATORIES 



Research Staff 

Halton C. Arp 1 

Alan Dressier 

Robert F. Howard 2 

Jerome Kristian 

S. Eric Persson 

George W. Preston, Director 

Allan Sandage 

Paul L. Schechter 

Leonard Searle 

Stephen A. Shectman 

Horace W. Babcock, Emeritus 

Olin C. Wilson, Emeritus 

Adjunct Staff Members 

W. Kent Ford, Jr., Department of Terres- 
trial Magnetism, CIW 

Vera C. Rubin, Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism, CIW 

Francois Schweizer, Department of Ter- 
restrial Magnetism, CIW 

Las Campanas Resident Scientists 

Wojciech A. Krzeminski, Resident Scien- 
tist 

William E. Kunkel, Resident Scientist/Ad- 
ministrator 

Staff Associate 

Arthur H. Vaughan, Perkin-Elmer Cor- 
poration 



Research Associates 

Todd A. Boroson 3 
Gary Chapman 4 
Douglas K. Duncan 
Ian B. Thompson 



Postdoctoral Research Fellows 

David H. Bruning 5 

Belva G. Campbell 6 

Michael D. Gregg, Carnegie Fellow 7 

Wendy L. Freedman, Carnegie Fellow 7 

Edmond Giraud, Carnegie-del Duca Fellow 7 

Robert I. Jedrzejewski, U.K. SERC Fellow 8 

Geoffrey W. Marcy, Carnegie Fellow 9 

Herschel B. Snodgrass 10 

Thomas Y. Steiman-Cameron, Carnegie 

Fellow 
Nicholas B. Suntzeff, Carnegie Las Cam- 
panas Observatory Fellow 
Rogier A. Windhorst, Carnegie Fellow 

Predoctoral Carnegie-Chile Research Fellow 

Fernando J. Selman, California Institute of 
Technology 

Sabbatical Visitors 

Eduardo Hardy, University Laval, Canada 11 
Sister Mary Matthew Baltus, Mercyhurst 
College 12 



STAFF LISTS 



159 



Visiting Associates 

Gerard Gilmore, University of Cambridge 13 
Rita E. M. Griffin, University of 

Cambridge 13 
Roger F. Griffin, University of Cambridge 13 
Gustav A. Tammann, University of Basel, 

Switzerland 13 

Supporting Staff, Pasadena 

John M. Adkins, Senior Research Assis- 
tant, Solar Physics 

Maria Anderson, Manuscript Typist and 
Editor 

John R. Bedke, Photographer 13 

Nicolette Breski, Purchasing Agent 

Richard T. Black, Business Manager 

John E. Boyden, Systems Programmer, 
Solar Physics 

Ken D. Clardy, Data Systems Manager 

Maynard K. Clark, Electronics Engineer, 
Solar Physics 

Harvey W. Crist, Machinist 

Gary Fouts, Research Assistant/Observer 14 

Carroll L. Friswold, Head, Design Group 

Joan Gantz, Librarian 

Robert T. Georgen, Foreman, Machine Shop 

Pamela I. Gilman, Research Assistant, So- 
lar Physics 

Rhea M. Goodwin, Assistant to the Direc- 
tor 

Charles E. Hartrick, Draftsperson 15 

Basil N. Katem, Senior Research Assistant 

Stephen P. Padilla, Research Assistant, 
Solar Physics 

Frank Perez, Technical Assistant to the 
Director 16 

Christopher K. Price, Electronics Engi- 
neer 

Stephen L. Knapp, Electronics Engineer 

William D. Quails, Driver 

Delores B. Sahlin, Receptionist 

Edward H. Snoddy, Designer 

Jeannie M. Todd, Bookkeeper 

Estuardo Vasquez, Machinist 

Stephen Wilson, Carpenter 

Laura A. Woodard, Research Assistant/ 
Observer 



*On leave of absence, Max Planck Institute for 

Physics and Astrophysics 
2 ToJuly31, 1984 
3 To October 31, 1984 

4 From September 1, 1984 to June 30, 1985 
5 To July 30, 1984 
6 From December 1, 1984 
7 From September 1, 1984 
8 From March 18, 1985 
9 To August 31, 1984 



Supporting Staff Mount Wilson 

David M. Carr, Mountain Superintendent 16 
Judy L. Carr, Stewardess (part-time) 17 
James Frazer, Night Assistant/Observer 
Ricardo de Leon, Steward 
Howard H. Lanning, Night Assistant/ 

Observer 14 
Jean Mueller, Night Assistant/Observer 
Anthony Misch, Observatory Technician 
Donald R. Poppe, Night Assistant/ 

Observer 18 
Eric Rawe, Observatory Technician 
Michael Thornberry, Steward 19 
Larry Webster, Resident Solar Observer 

Supporting Staff Las Campanas 

Hector Balbontin I., Chef 
Angel Cortes L., Accountant 
Oscar Duhalde C. , Night Assistant 
Angel Guerra F., Night Assistant 
Leonel Lillo A. , Carpenter 
Mario Mondaca 0., El Pino Guard 
Herman Olivares G., Warehouse Atten- 
dant 
Ljubomir Papid P., Mountain Superinten- 
dent 
Alfredo Paredes Z., Equipment Operator 
Fernando Peralta B., Night Assistant 
Leonardo Peralta B., Driver and Pur- 
chaser 
Victorino Riquelme P., Janitor 
Honorio Rojas P., Pump Operator 
Pedro Rojas T., Mason 
William Robinson W., Electronic Techni- 
cian 

Luis Hernan Solis P., Electronic Techni- 
cian 

Mario Taquias L., Plumber 

Gabriel Tolmo V., El Pino Guard 

Jorge Tolmo V. , El Pino Guard 

Mauricio Villalobos, Chef 

Patricia Villar B., Administrative Assis- 
tant 

Victor Valenzuela L., Mechanic 7 

Alberto Zuniga A. 



10 ToJuly31, 1984 

n To December 31, 1984 

12 From January 1 to June 1, 1985 

13 To June 30, 1985 

14 To December 31, 1984 

15 Retired, June 30, 1985 

16 FromJuly 1, 1984 

17 From April 1, 1985 

18 From January 23, 1985 

19 To March 31, 1985 



160 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

APPOINTMENTS IN SPECIAL SUBJECT AREAS 



Roy J. Britten, Staff Member of the 
Institution 1 



Barbara McClintock, Distinguished Ser- 
vice Member of the Institution 2 



distinguished Carnegie Senior Research Associ- 
ate, Developmental Biology Research Group, 
California Institute of Technology 

2 Cold Spring Harbor, New York 



OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION 



Lloyd H. Allen, Custodian 

Ray Bowers, Editor, Publications Officer 

Don A. Brooks, Custodian 

Cady Canapp, Personnel/Employee Bene- 
fits Administrator 1 

Carolyn J. Davis, Secretary 

Barbara F. Deal, Administrative Assistant 

D'Ann L. DeBruyn, Secretary 2 

James D. Ebert, President 

Jacqueline Green, Secretary to the 
President 3 

Joseph M. S. Haraburda, Accounting Man- 
ager 

Susan E. Henderson, Systems Accountant 4 

Jill Humphreys, Receptionist and Clerk 5 

Antoinette M. Jackson, Facilities and Sup- 
port Services Manager 



Sherman L. E. Johnson, Payroll Supervi- 
sor 

Jacqueline L. King, Administrative 
Assistant 5 

Richard S. Kuzmyak, Systems Accountant 6 

John C. Lawrence, Controller 8 

Margaret L. Loflin, Secretary to the Vice 
President 

Margaret L. A. Mac Vicar, Vice President 

John B. Osolnick, Accountant 4 

Patricia Parratt, Assistant Editor 

Arnold J. Pryor, Equal Opportunity Officer 

Richard B. Sell, Accountant 9 

Greg Silsbee, Grants and Contracts 
Administrator 10 

Susan Y. Vasquez, Assistant to the Pres- 
ident 



^rom August 27, 1984 

2 To November 15, 1984 

3 From December 10, 1984 

4 Junior Accountant to January 3, 1985 

5 From October 8, 1984 



6 To August 31, 1984 

7 To February 25, 1985 

8 Title changed from Bursar, May 2, 1985 

9 From February 11, 1985 

10 From April 15, 1985 



Visiting Investigators 



DEPARTMENT OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



Marilyn Estep, Geophysical Laboratory, 
CIW 

Robert Guy, University of Calgary, Al- 
berta 

Brian Jordan, Glasshouse Crops, West 
Sussex, England (NATO) 



Jacob Levitt, Senior Fellow, University of 
Minnesota 

W. Patrick Williams, Senior Lecturer, Bio- 
physics Department, Chelsea College, 
University of London 



STAFF LISTS 

DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



161 



Barbara Barreiro, Dartmouth College, New 

Hampshire 
Paul Dysart, Virginia Polytechnic Institute 

and State University 
Wang Enfu, State Seismological Bureau, 

Beijing, People's Republic of China 
Dale W. Evertson, University of Texas, 

Austin 
Jiang Guang, State Seismological Bureau, 

Beijing, People's Republic of China 



William K. Hart, Miami University, Ohio 

Liu Lanbo, State Seismological Bureau, 
Beijing, People's Republic of China 

Milan J. Pavich, U. S. Geological Survey, 
Reston, Virginia 

J. Arthur Snoke, Virginia Polytechnic In- 
stitute and State University 

Richard T. Williams, University of South 
Carolina, Columbia 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY 



Jagan Akella, Lawrence Livermore Lab- 
oratories 
Mary Jo Baedecker, U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey 
Mark Barton, University of California, Los 

Angeles 
Lukas Baumgartner, University of Basel, 

Switzerland 
Nabil Z. Boctor, Purdue University 
Luis A. Cifuentes, University of Delaware 
A. A. Finnerty, University of California, 

Davis 
Hiroyuki Fukuyama, University of Tokyo 1 
Fred Gallaraga, University of Maryland 
Ronald W. L. Kimber, CSIRO, Adelaide, 
Australia 



Julie Kokis, George Washington Univer- 
sity 
Vince La Piana, Yale University 
Barbara Levinson, University of Maryland 
Heinz A. Lowenstam, California Institute 

of Technology 
Ian D. MacGregor, National Science Foun- 
dation 
Vivek Navale, University of Maryland 
Elliot Spiker, U. S. Geological Survey 
E. Kent Sprague, University of Georgia 
Jianguo Xu, Institute of Geochemistry, 
Academia Sinica, People's Republic of 
China 

x Died, August 10, 1984 



MOUNT WILSON AND LAS CAMPANAS OBSERVATORIES 



Marc Aaronson, University of Arizona 
Thomas Albert, University of Basel 
Ferdinand Baas, University of Leiden 
Pierre Bergeron, University of Montreal 
Ben Bischoff, Oberlin College 
Todd Boroson, University of Michigan 
Edward Brugel, University of Colorado 
Andrew Buffington, University of Califor- 
nia, San Diego 
Paul Butler, San Francisco State Univer- 
sity 
A. Cacciani, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Nelson Caldwell, Cerro Tololo Inter- Amer- 
ican Observatory 
Luzius Cameron, University of Basel 
Luis Campusano, University of Chile 
J. Close, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 



Marc Colavita, Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology 
Marc Davis, University of California, 

Berkeley 
Serge Demers, University of Montreal 
P. Dumont, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Stephen Elmore, U. S. Naval Research 

Laboratory 
Alexei Filippenko, University of Califor- 
nia, Berkeley 
Gilles Fontaine, University of Montreal 
Otto Franz, Lowell Observatory 
Alfred Gautschy, University of Basel 
Richard Gomer, University of California, 

San Diego 
Thomas Graves, U. S. Naval Research 
Laboratory 



162 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



F. Greenberg, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Hugh Harris, Lowell Observatory 
John Hershey, U. S. Naval Observatory 
Keith Home, University of Cambridge 

D. J. Hutter, Georgia State University 
James Imamura, Los Alamos National 

Laboratory 
Renee Kraan-Korteweg, University of Basel 
Richard Kron, University of Chicago 
Jeff Kuhn, Princeton University 
Lukas Labhardt, University of Basel 
S. Lasseter, Georgia State University 
Bruno Leibundgut, University of Basel 
Victoria Lindsay, San Francisco State Uni- 
versity 
Carol Lonsdale, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Craig Mackay, University of Cambridge 
Barry Madore, University of Toronto 
Geoffrey W. Marcy, San Francisco State 

University 
Christopher McAlary, University of Ari- 
zona 
Harold McAlister, Georgia State Univer- 
sity 
A. Meiksin, University of California, 

Berkeley 
Jorge Melnick, University of Chile 
Mariano Moles, University of Andalucia 
Peter Nisensen, Harvard-Smithsonian 

Center for Astrophysics 
Robert W. Noyes, Harvard-Smithsonian 

Center for Astrophysics 
John Ottusch, University of California, 

Berkeley 
Neil Reid, University of Sussex 

E. Rhodes, University of Southern Cali- 
fornia and Jet Propulsion Laboratory 

Douglas 0. Richstone, University of Mich- 
igan 

Michael Shao, Harvard-Smithsonian Cen- 
ter for Astrophysics 

Jeff Shapiro, University of Southern Cal- 
ifornia/Rhodes 

Michael Shara, Space Telescope Science In- 
stitute 



R. Simon, U. S. Naval Research Labora- 
tory 
Bradford Smith, University of Arizona 
Horace Smith, Michigan State University 
Verne Smith, University of Texas 
Joseph Snider, Oberlin College 
Andreas Spaenhauer, University of Basel 
Robert Stachnik, Harvard-Smithsonian 

Center for Astrophysics 
Rae Stiening, Stanford University 
Linda Stryker, Department of Terrestrial 

Magnetism, CIW 
J. P. Swings, University of Liege 
J. Surdej, European Southern Observa- 
tory 
Santiago Tapia, University of Arizona 
Roberto Terlevich, University of Cam- 
bridge 
Richard Terrile, Jet Propulsion Labora- 
tory 
A. Thierry, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Carlos Torres, University of Chile 
Ken-ichi Wakamatsu, Gifu University 
Douglas Welch, University of Toronto 
Karen Wilson, San Francisco State Uni- 
versity 
Rosemary Wyse, University of California, 

Berkeley 
Janet Yamanaka, Yale University 
Alma Zook, Pomona College 

California Institute of Technology Observers 

Mary Barsony 
Timothy Beers 
Gregory Bothun 
Judith Cohen 
Christopher Impey 
Ken Libbrecht 
Barry F. Madore 
Jeremy Mould 
James Nemec 
Alain Porter 
R.. Michael Rich 
Wallace L. W. Sargent 
John Trauger 
David Tytler 



Report of the Executive 
Committee 

To the Trustees of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 

In accordance with the provisions of the By-Laws, the Executive Com- 
mittee submits this report to the Annual Meeting of the Board of Trustees. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1985, the Executive Committee held 
four meetings. Accounts of these meetings have been or will be mailed to 
each Trustee. 

A full statement of the finances and work of the Institution for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1984, appears in the Institution's Year Book 83 , a copy 
of which has been sent to each Trustee. An estimate of the Institution's 
expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1986, appears in the budget 
recommended by the Committee for approval by the Board of Trustees. 

The terms of the following members of the Board expire on May 3, 1985: 

William T. Coleman, Jr. Antonia Ax:son Johnson 

Edward E. David, Jr. Robert M. Pennoyer 

William T. Golden Robert C. Seamans, Jr. 
Richard E. Heckert 

In addition, the terms of office of the Vice-Chairman and Secretary of the 
Board, all Committee Chairmen, and the following members of Committees 
expire on May 3, 1985: 

Finance Committee Auditing Committee 

William T. Golden Philip H. Abelson 

Nominating Committee 
Robert G. Goelet 



Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Chairman 
May 3, 1985 



163 



Abstract of Minutes 

of the Eighty-Eighth Meeting of the Board of Trustees 

The annual meeting of the Board of Trustees was held in the Board Room 
of the Administration Building on Friday, May 3, 1985. The meeting was 
called to order by Chairman William R. Hewlett. 

The following Trustees were present: Philip H. Abelson, Lewis M. Bran- 
scomb, William T. Coleman, Jr., John Diebold, William T. Golden, William 
C. Greenough, Caryl P. Haskins, Richard E. Heckert, William R. Hewlett, 
Antonia Ax:son Johnson, John D. Macomber, Robert M. Pennoyer, Richard 
S. Perkins, Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Frank Stanton, Charles H. Townes, and 
Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr. Also present were James D. Ebert, President, Mar- 
garet L. A. Mac Vicar, Vice President, John C. Lawrence, Controller, Susan 
Y. Vasquez, Assistant Secretary, and Marshall Hornblower, Counsel. 

The minutes of the Eighty-Seventh Meeting were approved. 

The reports of the Executive Committee, the Finance Committee, the 
Employee Benefits Committee, and the Auditing Committee were accepted. 
On the recommendation of the latter, it was resolved that Price Waterhouse 
& Co. be appointed as public accountants for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1986. 

Sections 1.2, 1.5, the heading of Article III, and Sections 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4 
of the By-Laws were amended. The amended language is given in the By- 
Laws printed on pages 187-192 of this Year Book. 

On the recommendation of the Nominating Committee, Sandra M. Faber, 
William F. Kieschnick, and Gerald D. Laubach were elected members of the 
Board of Trustees, and the following were reelected for terms ending in 1988: 
William T. Coleman, Jr., Edward E. David, Jr., William T. Golden, Richard 
E. Heckert, Antonia Ax:son Johnson, Robert M. Pennoyer, and Robert C. 
Seamans, Jr. 

Richard E. Heckert was elected Vice-Chairman of the Board and William 
T. Golden was elected Secretary of the Board, both for terms ending in 1988. 

The following were elected for one-year terms: Robert C. Seamans, Jr., as 
Chairman of the Executive Committee; Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr., as Chairman 
of the Finance Committee; Robert M. Pennoyer, as Chairman of the Auditing 
Committee; Antonia Ax:son Johnson, as Chairman of the Nominating Com- 
mittee; and William T. Coleman, Jr., as Chairman of the Employee Benefits 
Committee. 

Vacancies in the Standing Committees, with terms ending in 1988, were 
filled as follows: William T. Golden was elected a member of the Finance 
Committee, and Edward E. David, Jr., was elected a member of the Nom- 
inating Committee. In addition, Lewis M. Branscomb was elected a member 
of the Executive Committee for the unexpired term ending in 1987, William 
C. Greenough was elected a member of the Executive Committee for the 
unexpired term ending in 1986, and Robert M. Pennoyer and Philip H. Abel- 
son were elected members of the Auditing Committee for the unexpired terms 



165 



166 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

ending in 1987. 

The Chairman pointed out that Dr. Stanton, who had been an active member 
of the Board for 22 years, serving as Chairman from 1977 to 1979, had decided 
to resign. This resignation was noted with regret, and in accordance with 
Section 1.6 of the By-Laws, Dr. Stanton was designated Trustee Emeritus. 

The following resolutions were approved: 

Resolved that, because of the desirability of locating the Institution's 
programs in the Geophysical Laboratory and the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism onto a common site, the Institution proceed with plans for new 
or remodeled buildings for the departments at a single site and that the 
sum of $250,000 be set aside from reserve funds for architectural fees, 
enabling completion of the preliminary design phase contingent upon the 
determination of the site. 

Resolved that, in recruiting a new Director of Geophysical Laboratory 
(to succeed Hatten Yoder, who will retire on June 30, 1986), the Institution 
seek an individual who is prepared to work with George Wetherill, Director 
of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, and with President James 
Ebert and his successor in effecting the move to a common site with the 
expectation of consolidation of the two departments. 

Resolved that the Institution undertake a capital campaign for the earth 
and planetary sciences facilities. 

Resolved that the Institution take the steps necessary to ensure its 
participation in a large new telescope, intending to commit by 1989 not less 
than $10 million toward the construction of a large telescope (8-meter) at 
Las Campanas, provided that engineering studies and site surveys, to be 
undertaken during 1985-1989, demonstrate its feasibility, and provided that 
agreements can be completed with the University of Arizona and, if ap- 
propriate, an additional partner. 

Resolved that, in recruiting a new Director of The Observatories (to 
succeed George Preston, whose term expires on June 30, 1986), the Insti- 
tution search with the expectation of undertaking development of the new 
telescope. 

Resolved that the Institution undertake a campaign to increase its 
endowment by $25 million. 

The annual report of the President was accepted. 

To provide for the operation of the Institution for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1986, and upon recommendation of the Executive Committee, the 
sum of $15,800,000 was appropriated. 



Financial Statements 

for the year ended June 30, 1985 



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168 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Contributions, Gifts, and Grants 
for the Year Ended June 30, 1985 



Jagannadham Akella 

Joseph F. Albright 

American Cancer society 

Anonymous 

Toshi Asada 

BARD (United States-Israel Agriculture Foundation) 

Clifton Batson 

Ailene J. Bauer 

Liselotte Beach 

Giuseppe Bertani 

Earle B. Biesecker 

John J. Bonica 

Montgomery S. Bradley 

Bristol-Myers Co. 

Donald D. Brown 

Donald M. Burt 

William Buscombe 

California Institute of Technology 

Carnegie Corporation of New York 

James F. Case 

Ernst W. Caspari 

Celanese Corporation 

Britton Chance 

People's Republic of China 

The Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Foundation 

John and Annette Coleman 

Charles E. Culpeper Foundation, Inc. 

Howard Clark Dalton 

The Charles A. Dana Foundation, Inc. 

Robert L. DeHaan 

Louis E. DeLanney 

John Diebold 

Bruce R. Doe 

Martin W. Donner 

E. I. Du Pont de Nemours 

James and Alma Ebert 

Frank and Margaret Edmondson 

W. G. Ernst 

Exxon Education Foundation 

Sandra M. Faber 

Dorothy Ruth Fischer 

Michael Fleischer 

Louis Flexner 

W. Kent Ford 

C. S. French 

Alberto Giesecke 

Robert Goelet 

Sibyl and William T. Golden Foundation 

Crawford and Margaretta Greenewalt 

Gilbert S. Green wald 

Sam A. Haroz, II 

Caryl P. and Edna Haskins 

Richard E. Heckert 

Mary G. Hedger 



H. Lawrence Heifer 

Edward P. Henderson 

Alfred D. Hershey 

William R. Hewlett 

William M. Hiesey 

( F. Earl Ingerson 

International Business Machines Corp. 

George F. Jewett, Jr. 

The Johns Hopkins University 

Antonia Ax:son Johnson 

Paul A. Johnson 

W. M. Keck Foundation 

Mac L. Keith 

Robert B. King 

Elizabeth Ramsey and Hans A. Klagsbrunn 

Robert N. Kreidler 

Ikuo Kushiro 

Arthur and Faith La Velle 

A. H. Lawrence 

Harold H. Lee 

Ta-Yan Leong 

Edna G. Lichtenstein 

Melvyn Lieberman 

John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation 

John D. Macomber 

Horace N. Marvin 

Sheila McCormick 

The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 

Gunter Moh 

Ambrose Monell Foundation 

Monsanto Company 

Francis L. Moseley 

Muscular Dystrophy Association 

Howard R. Naslund 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

National Geographic Society 

National Science Foundation 

Office of Naval Research 

University of Nevada 

Malcolm A. Nobs 

Jessie Smith Noyes Foundation, Inc. 

Tokindo Okada 

Lucy C. Paschal 

Robert M. Pennoyer 

The Penta Corporation 

The Pew Memorial Trust 

Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. 

Public Health Service 

Peter H. Quail 

P. R. Ranganayaki 

Peter Raven 

Curt P. Richter 

Josephine Roberts 

Robert G. Roeder 

Glenn C. Rosenquist 



(continued) 



169 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Contributions, Gifts, and Grants 
for the Year Ended June 30, 1985 (continued) 



Dorothea Rudnick 

Bruce C. Rule 

Damon Runyon-Walter Winchell Cancer Fund 

Paul A. Scherer 

Maarten and Corrie Schmidt 

Robert C. Seamans, Jr. 

Shell Companies Foundation, Inc. 

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation 

A. Ledyard Smith 

Harold Speert 

Frank Stanton 

Roger D. Sumner 

Yoshiaki Suzuki 

Ikuo Takeuchi 

The Teagle Foundation, Inc. 

Heinz Tiedemann 

George R. Tilton 

Charles H. Townes 

United Agriseeds 

United States Agency for International Development 



United States Department of Agriculture 

United States Department of Commerce 

United States Department of Energy 

United States Department of the Interior 

University of California 

A. Unsoeld 

William B. Upholt 

Larry N. Vanderhoef 

Arthur H. Vaughan 

George Wallerstein 

Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr. 

Wenner-Gren Foundation 

Richard E. White 

W. Dexter Whitehead, Jr. 

Helen Hay Whitney Foundation 

David Gayle Whittingham 

P. Frank Winkler 

Frederick T. Wolf 

Violet K. Young 



170 




, *if\£± 1801 K STREET. N.W 

JLICC .. WASHINGTON. DC 20006 



202 296-0800 



/aterhouse 

September 5, 1985 



To the Auditing Committee of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington 

In our opinion, the accompanying statements of assets, liabil- 
ities and fund balances and the related statements of revenue, 
expenses, and changes in fund balances present fairly the financial 
position of the Carnegie Institution of Washington at June 30, 1985 
and 1984, and the results of its operations and the changes in its 
fund balances for the years then ended, in conformity with 
generally accepted accounting principles consistently applied. Our 
examinations of these statements were made in accordance with 
generally accepted auditing standards and accordingly included such 
tests of the accounting records and such other auditing procedures 
as we considered necessary in the circumstances. 

Our examinations were made for the purpose of forming an 
opinion on the basic financial statements taken as a whole. The 
supporting schedules 1 through 5 are presented for purposes of 
additional analysis and are not a required part of the basic 
financial statements. Such information has been subjected to the 
auditing procedures applied in the examination of the basic 
financial statements and, in our opinion, is fairly stated in all 
material respects in relation to the basic financial statements 
taken as a whole. 



Kaua- C0*faJi*>u<>*^ 



171 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Statements of Assets, Liabilities, and Fund Balances 
June 30, 1985 and 1984 

1985 1984 

Assets 

Current assets 

Cash and cash equivalents $ 3,975,889 $ 519,851 

Accounts receivable and advances 76,668 116,942 

Grants receivable 393,639 339,209 

Accrued interest and dividends 971,643 910,906 

Due from brokers 649,040 

Total current assets 6,066,879 1,886,908 

Investments* 

Fixed income— short term 2,764,000 51,223,621 

Fixed income— bonds 27,570,290 12,034,596 

Fixed income— mortgages 20,616,770 22,969,328 

Corporate stocks 84,176,749 44,668,237 

Other 548,559 451,875 

Adjustment to lower of cost or market ... (542,276) 

Total investments 135,676,368 130,805,381 

Plant 

Land 1,019,524 1,027,524 

Buildings 4,369,812 4,051,744 

Equipment 10,218,544 10,211,819 

Total plant 15,607,880 15,291,087 

Total assets $157,351,127 $147,983,376 

Liabilities and Fund Balances 

Current liabilities 

Due to brokers ... 2,692,583 

Accounts payable and accrued expenses 1,204,541 965,319 

Deferred grant income 2,411,213 1,610,448 

Total current liabilities 3,615,754 5,268,350 

Fund balances ' 153,735,373 142,715,026 

Total liabilities and fund balances $157,351,127 $147,983,376 



* Approximate market value on June 30, 1985: $153,210,227; June 30, 1984: $130,805,381. 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these statements. 



172 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Statements of Revenues, Expenses, and Changes in Fund Balances 
for the Years Ended June 30, 1985 and 1984 

Year Ended June 30 



Revenues 

Investment income 

Grants 

Federal 

Private 

Other income 

Total revenues 

Expenses 

Personnel and related 

Equipment 

General 

Total expenses 

Excess of revenues over expenses before capital changes . 

Capital changes 

Realized net gain on investments 

Unrealized gain (loss) on investments 

Gifts — endowment and special funds 

Land, buildings, and equipment capitalized 

Sale of property 

Total capital changes 

Excess of revenues and capital changes over expenses 
Funds balance, beginning of year 

Funds balance, end of year 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these statements. 



1985 


1984 


$ 11,196,173 


$ 10,224,014 


4,156,462 

1,042,142 

162,933 


3,370,722 
936,811 
187,423 


16,557,710 


14,718,970 


9,296,744 
1,880,666 
4,825,015 


8,745,860 
1,290,621 
4,388,688 


16,002,425 


14,425,169 


555,285 


293,801 


8,066,121 
542,276 

1,113,859 
316,793 
426,013 


11,707,307 

(542,276) 

809,357 

9,942 


10,465,062 


11,984,330 


11,020,347 


12,278,131 


142,715,026 


130,436,895 


$153,735,373 


$142,715,026 



173 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Notes to the Financial Statements 
June 30, 1985 

Note 1 . Significant Accounting Policies 

The financial statements of the Institution are prepared on the accrual basis of accounting. 

Investments are carried on the balance sheet in the aggregate at the lower of cost or market 
value. A detailed listing of all securities held by the Institution as of June 30, 1985 has been 
included as Schedule 5 of this report. 

The Institution capitalizes expenditures for land, buildings, telescopes and other significant 
equipment, and construction projects in progress. Expenditures for other equipment are 
charged to current operations as incurred, and the cost of such other equipment is not capitalized. 
The Institution follows the policy of not depreciating its buildings and its telescopes and other 
significant equipment. 

Note 2. Retirement Plan 

The Institution has a noncontributory money-purchase retirement plan in which all United 
States personnel are eligible to participate. Voluntary contributions may also be made by 
employees. Actuarially determined contributions are funded currently by the Institution, and 
there are no unfunded past service costs. The total contributions made by the Institution were 
$833,113 in 1985 and $845,671 in 1984. Benefits under the plan upon retirement depend upon 
the investment performance of the Institution's Retirement Trust. After four years' participa- 
tion (one year's participation beginning July 1, 1984), an individual's benefits are fully vested. 

Note 3. Restricted Grants 

Restricted Grants are funds received from foundations, individuals, and federal agencies in 
support of scientific research and educational programs. The Institution follows the policy of 
reporting revenues only to the extent that reimburseable expenditures are incurred. The 
Restricted Grants Statement (Schedule 3) shows all current grants. 

Note U- Income Taxes 

The Instititution is exempt from federal income tax under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal 
Revenue Code. Accordingly, no provision for income taxes is reflected in the accompanying 
financial statements. The Institution is also an educational institution within the meaning of 
Section 170(b)(l)(A)(ii) of the Code. The Internal Revenue Service has classified the Institution 
as other than a private foundation, as defined in Section 509(a) of the Code. 



174 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 

Financial Statements 



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176 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Schedule 3 



Restricted Grants 
for the Year Ended June 30, 



1985 



Federal Grants 

BARD (U.S.-Israel Agriculture Fund) 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration . 

National Science Foundation 

Office of Naval Research 

Public Health Service 

U.S. Agency for International Development . . . 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 

U.S. Department of Commerce 

U.S. Department of Energy 

U.S. Department of the Interior 

Total federal grants 

Private grants 

American Cancer Society 

Anonymous 

University of Basel 

California Institute of Technology 

University of California 

Carnegie Corporation of New York 

People's Republic of China 

Charles E. Culpeper Foundation, Inc 

The Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund for Medical 

Research 

The Charles A. Dana Foundation, Inc 

Exxon Education Foundation 

William R. Hewlett Lead Trust 

Pioneer Hi-Bred International 

Johns Hopkins University 

W. M. Keck Foundation 

John D. & Catherine T. Mac Arthur Foundation . 

The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 

Monsanto Company 

Francis L. Moseley 

Muscular Dystrophy Association 

National Geographic Society 

University of Nevada 

Jessie Smith Noyes Foundation, Inc 

The Pew Memorial Trust 

Richard B. T. Roberts 

Vera C. Rubin 

Damon Runyon-Walter Winchell Cancer Fund 

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation 

The Teagle Foundation, Inc 

United Agriseeds 

Wenner-Gren Foundation 

Helen Hay Whitney Foundation 

Total private grants 

Total restricted grants 

Less cash not yet received from grants 
Deferred income 



Balance 


New 




Balance 


Julv 1.1984 


Grants 


Expenses 


June 30. 1985 


$ 7,555 


$ 


$ 444 


$ 7,111 


384,076 


286,324 


463,174 


207,226 


1,006,325 


1,616,751 


1,437,400 


1,185,676 


42,516 


90,055 


84,876 


47,695 


999,845 


1,569,546 


1,657,010 


912,381 


400,525 




312,300 


88,225 


34,207 


58,000 


71,856 


20,351 


10,120 




9,957 


163 


27,025 


6,000 


28,548 


4,477 


122,637 




90,897 


31,740 



3,916,769 



5,341,152 
$1,610,448 



3,034,831 3,626,676 4,156,462 



2,505,045 



617,097 


165,896 


120,210 


662,783 


254,972 






254,972 




5,137 


5,137 




25,284 


29,530 


41,390 


13,424 


3,411 


30,744 


34,155 




375,000 




125,000 


250,000 




290,504 


104,271 


186,233 


100,000 




100,000 




62,364 


1,083 


34,600 


28,847 


5,168 




5,168 


. . . 


50,000 




50,000 




988,776 


5,480 


563 


993,693 


51,198 




31,697 


19,501 




33,723 


21,428 


12,295 


224,114 




25,303 


198,811 




15,000 


15,000 




742,557 




48,268 


694,289 


30,000 




8,864 


21,136 


154,598 


(151,101) 


3,497 




27,750 


18,000 


37,250 


8,500 


35,778 




28,023 


7,755 




2,600 


2,600 




1,896 




1,896 




75,000 




75,000 




1,306 






1,306 


3,500 




153 


3,347 




108,280 


44,800 


63,480 


25,000 




4,543 


20,457 


11,000 


30,000 


31,000 


10,000 




30,000 


28,083 


1,917 




6,000 


636 


5,364 


51,000 




13,607 


37,393 



620,876 1,042,142 



6,951,600 $4,247,552 $5,198,604 



3,495,503 
6,000,548 

3,589,335 
$2,411,213 



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these schedules. 

177 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 

Schedule 4 

Schedule of Expenses 

for the Years Ended June 30, 1985 and 1984 

1985 1984 

Endowment Restricted Total Total 

and Special Grants Expenses Expenses 

Salaries, fringe benefits, and payroll taxes 

Salaries $ 5,133,225 $1,365,621 $ 6,498,846 $ 6,356,338 

Fringe benefits and payroll taxes . 1,417,163 346,978 1,764,141 1,539,657 

Total 6,550,388 1,712,599 8,262,987 7,895,995 

Fellowship grants 541,942 447,110 989,052 797,671 

Awards, grants, and honoraria .... 44,705 . . . 44,705 52,194 

Equipment 

Educational and research 736,187 538,234 1,274,421 985,542 

Administrative and operating . . . 117,151 12,986 130,137 138,397 

Library 107,333 2,379 109,712 102,284 

Land (improvement) ... ... ... 16,995 

Building (improvement) 359,108 563 359,671 18,232 

Telescopes (improvement) 6,725 _ 6,725 29,171 

Total 1,326,504 554,162 1,880,666 1,290,621 

General expenses 

Educational and research supplies . 629,111 1,012,196 1,641,307 1,207,487 

Building maintenance 878,859 ... 878,859 1,006,463 

Investment services 389,097 ... 389,097 411,115 

Administrative 653,903 4,618 658,521 578,801 

Travel 256,417 238,068 494,485 354,238 

Retiree and special employee benefits . 202,132 ... 202,132 195,222 

General insurance 56,762 ... 56,762 184,887 

Publications 122,574 33,548 156,122 166,920 

Professional and consulting fees . . 209,728 . . . 209,728 159,408 

Commissary 49,954 ... 49,954 56,812 

Shop 37,086 ... 37,086 33,026 

Real estate and other taxes 29,751 . . . 29,751 8,930 

Rent 6,211 15,000 21,211 25,379 

Total 3,521,585 1,303,430 4,825,015 4,388,688 

Indirect costs (1,181,303) 1,181,303 

Total expenses $10,803,821 $5,198,604 $16,002,425 $14,425,169 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these schedules. 



178 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Schedule 5 
1 of 4 



Schedule of Investments 
June 30, 1985 



Description 

Fixed income — short term 

General Motors Acceptance Corp., PN 

Merck & Co. , Inc. , Master Note 

Total fixed income — short term 

Fixed income — bonds 

Chevron Capital USA Inc., Notes 11%, 1990 . . . 
Equitable Life Leasing Corp Med Term Note, 11%, 1989 . 
Equitable Life Leasing Corp Med Term Note, 11.85% 
First Interstate Bancorp, Med Term Note 

10.45%, 1998 

Ford Motor Credit Co., Med Term Note, 10.25% . 
General Motors Acceptance Corp., Note, 9.75%, 1998 . 
Hibernia National Bank, CtfofDep., 10.85%, 1986 . 
Occidental Petroleum Corp. , Note, Conv Sub Var 

Rate, 1988 

Phillips Petroleum Co., SR Note FR, 11.25%, 1995 . 
Phillips Petroleum Co., SR Note FR, 13.87%, 1997 . 
Phillips Petroleum Co., Sub Deb, 14.75%, 2000 . . 
Republic Bank Dallas, Ctf of Dep, 10.55%, 1988 . . 
Sperry Lease Finance Corp. , Leased Back Note, 

11%, 1991 

Wells Fargo & Co., Med Term Note, 10.6%, 1988 . 
United States Treasury Bond, 7.62%, 2007 
United States Treasury Bond, 10.37%, 2012 
United States Treasury Note, 11.75%, 1993 
United States Treasury Note, 14.50%, 1989 
United States Treasury Note, 12.62%, 1994 
Unocal Corp., Ext Note Adj Rate, 13.5%, 1988 

Total fixed income — bonds 



Fixed income — mortgages 

FHLMC, Group #180738, 7%, 2011 

FHLMC, Group #181062, 6%, 2008 

FHLMC, Group #185180, 8.75%, 2008 

FNMA, Pool #280, 8.5%, 2012 

FNMA, Pool #282, 8.5%, 2011 

FNMA, Pool #1149, 8%, 2009 

FNMA, Pool #2688, 7.75%, 2008 

FNMA, Pool #2426, 7.75%, 2008 

Home Savings of America, Series #198310, 

FHA & va 

Mortgage Corp. of the South, PC85-1, 9.64%, 2008 
Security Savings & Loan Assn. , Series 

#1984-3, Conventional Mtg Lns 

GNMA, Pool #17519, 7.5%, 2007 



Par/Shares 



710,000 
2,054,000 



Total fixed income — mortgages 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these schedules. 

179 



Cost 



710,000 
2,054,000 

2,764,000 



27,570,290 



20,616,770 



Approximate 
Market 



$ 710,000 
2,054,000 

2,764,000 



600,000 


614,040 


617,250 


600,000 


600,000 


632,250 


27,085 


27,565 


27,118 


650,000 


650,507 


658,938 


2,500,000 


2,500,000 


2,506,250 


2,000,000 


1,999,440 


2,005,000 


600,000 


600,000 


608,250 


1,200,000 


1,213,000 


1,201,500 


1,250 


987 


1,222 


360 


284 


378 


1,300 


1,027 


1,388 


600,000 


600,000 


609,750 


452,920 


462,545 


465,375 


1,600,000 


1,600,000 


1,624,000 


1,035,000 


768,488 


786,600 


1,520,000 


1,530,450 


1,483,900 


3,850,000 


3,934,594 


4,158,000 


2,140,000 


2,453,644 


2,469,025 


6,325,000 


7,071,531 


7,170,969 


900,000 


942,188 


941,625 



27,968,788 



1,864,832 


1,118,899 


1,505,852 


2,710,483 


1,504,313 


2,127,729 


3,089,559 


2,461,993 


2,776,741 


3,988,028 


2,671,978 


3,494,509 


2,309,444 


1,593,516 


2,014,990 


4,300,419 


3,225,314 


3,687,609 


2,790,019 


2,158,777 


2,259,915 


2,705,780 


2,078,377 


2,249,180 


1,123,123 


930,789 


1,020,638 


69,963 


58,835 


69,693 


3,009,498 


2,431,886 


2,554,311 


492,228 


382,093 


399,935 



24,161,102 



(continued) 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Schedule 5 
2 of 4 

Schedule of Investments June 30, 1985 (continued) 



Description Par/Shares 

Corporate stocks — common 

Abbott Laboratories 6,000 

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc 17,425 

Aetna Life & Casualty 10,625 

Alamito Co 2 

American Home Products Corp 4,250 

American International Group 1,700 

American Information Technologies Co 23,285 

American President Co 13,600 

American Telephone & Telegraph Co 171 

AMR Corp 12,750 

Amstead Industries, Inc 4,250 

Aluminum Company of America 42,185 

Amax, Inc 8,500 

Arizona Bancwest Corp 23,100 

Arvin Industries, Inc 13,600 

Avon Products, Inc 10,795 

Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc 16,950 

Bausch & Lomb, Inc 24,225 

Bell Atlantic Corp 16,985 

Black & Decker Mfg. Co 5,100 

Boeing Co 56,961 

Boise Cascade Corp 12,250 

Calmat 14,450 

Caterpillar Tractor Co 8,330 

Cessna Aircraft Co 5,780 

Champion International Corp 8,500 

Chemed Corp 12,500 

Chesebrough-Pond's Inc 4,590 

Chrysler Corp 11,550 

Coco-Cola Co 10,000 

Commonwealth Edison 3,485 

A. T. Cross Co 4,165 

Dana Corp 17,700 

Data General Corp 3,400 

Delta Air Lines 9,350 

Deere & Co 7,650 

Detroit Edison Co 3,910 

Digital Equipment Corp 14,750 

Dow Chemical Co 23,205 

Dresser Industries Inc 2,550 

Duke Power 27,300 

E. I. Du Pont de Nemours 3,655 

Eastman Kodak Co 7,649 

Jack Eckerd Corp 7,990 

Economics Laboratory Inc 4,420 

Emerson Electric Co 8,060 

Farmers Group Inc 14,500 

Federal Express Corp 20,400 

First Alabama Bancshares Inc 30,400 

First Bank System Inc 14,700 

First Union Corp 11,000 

Ford Motor Corp 5,950 

General Electric Co 17,000 

General Motors Corp 24,725 

General Public Utilities Corp 44,201 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these schedules. 

180 





Approximate 


Cost 


Market 


337,580 


344,250 


503,308 


453,050 


462,183 


495,391 


74 


208 


248,179 


271,469 


128,172 


144,500 


1,604,497 


2,209,164 


239,533 


277,100 


2,855 


4,125 


549,790 


610,406 


173,740 


169,469 


1,317,879 


1,444,836 


148,164 


126,438 


364,875 


701,663 


269,263 


278,800 


223,394 


230,743 


478,136 


639,863 


663,894 


787,313 


1,144,984 


1,573,236 


94,388 


100,725 


2,142,662 


2,549,005 


508,816 


591,063 


354,447 


361,250 


263,023 


275,931 


108,712 


131,495 


190,307 


196,563 


323,043 


373,438 


158,965 


146,880 


420,672 


421,575 


700,637 


693,750 


100,045 


107,599 


129,213 


143,693 


390,754 


484,538 


129,897 


127,075 


386,954 


458,150 


212,906 


230,456 


63,811 


66,959 


1,502,093 


1,384,656 


735,266 


829,579 


50,860 


54,506 


827,736 


948,675 


202,097 


212,447 


337,157 


338,468 


206,334 


237,703 


126,942 


146,965 


572,509 


591,403 


501,875 


933,438 


767,382 


905,250 


539,600 


896,800 


415,900 


582,488 


258,500 


445,500 


244,267 


268,494 


1,040,510 


1,051,875 


1,849,232 


1,780,200 


555,602 


624,339 




(continued) 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Schedule 5 
3 of 4 

Schedule of Investments June 30, 1985 (continued) 



Description Par/Shares 

Corporate stocks — common (continued) 

Hewlett-Packard Co 19,950 

Hospital Corporation of America 8,000 

Household International, Inc 7,650 

Imperial Chemical Industries 6,800 

Intel Corp 8,500 

International Business Machines Corp 49,700 

International Paper Co 7,380 

IU International Corp 5,100 

Johnson & Johnson 25,500 

Koppers Co., Inc 25,500 

Kroger Co 2,890 

Eli Lilly & Co 12,750 

Lubrizol Corp 2,550 

Lucky Stores Inc 14,195 

MCA Inc 14,450 

McDonalds Corp 13,050 

Mack Trucks Inc 7,650 

R. H. Macy & Co., Inc 7,000 

Maryland National Corp 26,400 

The Mead Corp 19,975 

Medtronic, Inc 4,505 

Merck & Co 5,000 

Milipore Corp 291 

Minnesota Mining & Mfg. Co 3,570 

Mobil Corp 5,015 

Monsanto Co 14,750 

Philip Morris Inc 25,805 

Motorola, Inc 17,850 

NCNBCorp 38,500 

NWA, Inc 19,550 

National Australia Bank Ltd 178,000 

New England Electric System 6,800 

Nike Inc 10,200 

Northeast Utilities 6,120 

Northwest Corp 10,000 

Nynex Corp 16,500 

Ohio Casualty Corp 6,045 

Orbanco Financial Services 18,200 

Pacific Telesis Group 11,625 

J.C. Penney Co., Inc 4,080 

Pennzoil Co 2,465 

Polaroid Corp 25,500 

Procter & Gamble Co 4,845 

Public Service Electric & Gas Co 41,440 

Raytheon Co . 6,375 

R. J. Reynolds Industries Inc . 26,307 

Rohm & Haas Co 8,500 

Royal Dutch Petroleum Co 7,825 

Safeway Stores, Inc 5,865 

Sante Fe-Southern Pacific 14,450 

Schering-Plough Corp 7,500 

Schlumberger Limited 12,560 

Sea-land Corp 11,901 

G. D. Searle & Co 18,700 

Shawmut Corp 9,700 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these schedules. 

181 





Approximate 


Cost 


Market 


661,732 


698,250 


357,838 


388,000 


266,289 


281,138 


246,194 


266,050 


230,031 


221,000 


5,644,889 


6,150,364 


370,172 


361,620 


112,520 


67,575 


1,140,989 


1,182,563 


448,861 


452,625 


123,056 


131,134 


998,953 


1,102,875 


57,872 


56,419 


282,670 


322,936 


746,172 


865,194 


880,030 


893,925 


89,797 


80,325 


352,632 


362,250 


394,350 


815,100 


786,159 


843,944 


128,944 


148,102 


539,467 


563,125 


10,021 


11,422 


273,004 


278,460 


154,562 


151,077 


690,049 


713,531 


1,446,775 


2,203,102 


565,705 


609,131 


919,122 


1,674,750 


747,535 


1,058,144 


520,640 


511,750 


275,094 


296,650 


113,688 


109,650 


95,992 


102,510 


257,793 


272,500 


1,020,411 


1,472,625 


264,829 


373,279 


533,075 


313,950 


828,914 


911,109 


190,516 


210,120 


126,220 


125,715 


718,995 


803,250 


252,885 


272,531 


1,077,440 


1,263,920 


286,493 


318,750 


822,601 


835,247 


505,588 


559,938 


415,833 


457,763 


174,161 


198,677 


389,517 


480,463 


352,432 


335,625 


486,208 


485,130 


224,354 


272,235 


940,510 


1,009,800 


263,517 


368,600 




(continued) 



Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Financial Statements 



Schedule 5 
4 of 4 

Schedule of Investments June 30, 1985 (continued) 



Description 

Corporate stocks — common (continued) 

Shell Transportation 

SmithKline Beckman 

Southeast Banking Corp 

Southern California Edison Co 

Southwestern Bell Corp 

Square D Co 

Squibb Corp 

Tandem Computers Inc 

Tektronix, Inc 

Temple Inland Inc 

Tenneco Inc 

Texaco Inc 

Texas Instruments Inc 

Texas Oil & Gas Corp 

Texas Utilities Co 

Tucson Electric Power Co 

Timken Co 

UAL Inc 

Upjohn Co 

USF&GCorp 

USWestCorp 

United States Steel Corp 

United Technologies Corp 

Xerox Corp 

Washington Gas Light Co 

Wells Fargo & Co 

Westinghouse Electric Corp 

Westpac Banking Ltd 

Subtotal corporate stocks — common 

Corporate stocks — preferred 

United Technologies Corp 

Subtotal corporate stock — preferred 

Corporate stocks — mutual fund 
Miller, Anderson & Sherrerd Value Fund .... 

Subtotal corporate stocks — mutual fund . . . 

Total corporate stocks 

Other 

Alan Dressier, Second trust, variable interest rate 
James D. and Alma C. Ebert (non-interest-bearing 

loan to president secured by real estate) .... 
Arthur Grossman, First trust, 9.0%, 2014 .... 
Steven McKnight, First trust, 10.5%, 2009 . . . 
Francois Schweizer, First trust, 10.5%, 2007 . . 

Total other 

Total investments 



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these schedules. 

182 







Approximate 


Par/Shares 


Cost 


Market 


12,300 


375,950 


453,563 


12,950 


800,268 


901,644 


26,900 


539,158 


921,325 


2,550 


65,204 


68,213 


26,570 


1,656,232 


2,231,880 


4,250 


155,537 


168,406 


5,100 


286,008 


321,938 


22,950 


458,268 


415,969 


12,750 


734,268 


771,375 


8,500 


291,805 


286,875 


20,760 


826,773 


879,705 


18,400 


720,139 


696,900 


595 


78,669 


56,897 


5,440 


96,941 


89,080 


4,845 


135,216 


150,195 


28 


955 


1,145 


5,016 


251,599 


237,633 


18,700 


782,609 


1,002,788 


13,175 


1,178,932 


1,426,194 


6,290 


208,526 


231,158 


17,680 


1,049,528 


1,432,080 


7,565 


207,669 


210,874 


26,445 


918,748 


1,097,468 


6,375 


291,887 


335,484 


28,200 


540,775 


648,600 


2,380 


128,285 


141,610 


40,550 


944,212 


1,393,906 


178,000 


505,920 


489,500 




71,307,791 


82,833,278 


5,600 


196,630 


205,100 




196,630 


205,100 


501,000 


12,672,328 


14,729,400 




12,672,328 


14,729,400 




84,176,749 


97,767,778 



59,244 



59,244 



200,000 
93,131 
99,280 
96,904 


200,000 
93,131 
99,280 
96,904 


548,559 


548,559 


135,676^368 


$ 153,210,227 



Articles of Incorporation 

JTrflg-erg|i| Congress of i\t Wimitt J&taies of America; 

git tlue &zam& Jtessiott, 

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the seventh day of December, one 

thousand nine hundred and three. 



^lIST ACT 
To incorporate the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 



Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That the persons following, being persons 
who are now trustees of the Carnegie Institution, namely, Alexander Agassiz, 
John S. Billings, John L. Cadwalader, Cleveland H. Dodge, William N. Frew, 
Lyman J. Gage, Daniel C. Oilman, John Hay, Henry L. Higginson, William 
Wirt Howe, Charles L. Hutchinson, Samuel P. Langley, William Lindsay, Seth 
Low, Wayne MacVeagh, Darius 0. Mills, S. Weir Mitchell, William W. Morrow, 
Ethan A. Hitchcock, Elihu Root, John C. Spooner, Andrew D. White, Charles 
D. Walcott, Carroll D. Wright, their associates and successors, duly chosen, are 
hereby incorporated and declared to be a body corporate by the name of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington and by that name shall be known and have 
perpetual succession, with the powers, limitations, and restrictions herein contained. 

Sec. 2. That the objects of the corporation shall be to encourage, in the 
broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery, and 
the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind; and in particular — 

(a) To conduct, endow, and assist investigation in any department of 
science, literature, or art, and to this end to cooperate with governments, 
universities, colleges, technical schools, learned societies, and individuals. 

(b) To appoint committees of experts to direct special lines of research. 

(c) To publish and distribute documents. 

(d) To conduct lectures, hold meetings, and acquire and maintain a library. 

(e) To purchase such property, real or personal, and construct such building 
or buildings as may be necessary to carry on the work of the corporation. 

183 



184 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

(f) In general, to do and perform all things necessary to promote the 
objects of the institution, with full power, however, to the trustees hereinafter 

appointed and their successors from time to time to modify the conditions and 
regulations under which the work shall he carried on, so as to secure the 
application of the funds in the manner best adapted to the conditions of the time, 
provided that the objects of the corporation shall at all times be among the 
foregoing or kindred thereto. 

Sec. 3. That the direction and management of the affairs of the corporation 
and the control and disposal of its property and funds shall be vested in a board 
of trustees, twenty-two in number, to be composed of the following individuals : 
Alexander Agassiz, John S. Billings, John L. Cadwalader, Cleveland H. Dodge, 
William N. Frew, Lyman J. Gage, Daniel C. Gilman, John Hay, Henry 
L. Higginson, William Wirt Howe, Charles L. Hutchinson, Samuel P. 
Langley, William Lindsay, Seth Low, Wayne MacVeagh, Darius 0. Mills, 
S. Weir Mitchell, William W. Morrow, Ethan A. Hitchcock, Elihu Root, 
John C. Spooner, Andrew D. White, Charles D. Walcott, Carroll D. Wright, 
who shall constitute the first board of trustees. The board of trustees shall 
have power from time to time to increase its membership to not more than 
twenty-seven members. Vacancies occasioned by death, resignation, or otherwise 
shall be filled by the remaining trustees in such manner as the by-laws shall 
prescribe; and the persons so elected shall thereupon become trustees and also 
members of the said corporation. The principal place of business of the said 
corporation shall be the city of Washington, in the District of Columbia. 

Sec. 4. That such board of trustees shall be entitled to take, hold and 
administer the securities, funds, and property so transferred by said Andrew 
Carnegie to the trustees of the Carnegie Institution and such other funds or 
property as may at any time be given, devised, or bequeathed to them, or to such 
corporation, for the purposes of the trust ; and with full power from time to time to 
adopt a common seal, to appoint such officers, members of the board of trustees or 
otherwise, and such employees as may be deemed necessary in carrying on the 
business of the corporation, at such salaries or with such remuneration as they may 
deem proper; and with lull power to adopt by-laws from time to time and such rules 
or regulations as may be necessary to secure the safe and convenient transaction 
of the business of the corporation; and with full power and discretion to deal 
with and expend the income of the corporation in such manner as in their 
judgment will best promote the objects herein set forth and in general to have 
and use all powers and authority necessary to promote such objects and carry out 
the purposes of the donor. The said trustees shall have further power from time 



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION 185 

to time to hold as investments the securities hereinabove referred to so transferred 
by Andrew Carnegie, and any property which has been or may be transferred 
to them or such corporation by Andrew Carnegie or by any other person, 
persons, or corporation, and to invest any sums or amounts from time to time 
in such securities and in such form and manner as are permitted to trustees 
or to charitable or literary corporations for investment, according to the laws 
of the States of New York, Pennsylvania, or Massachusetts, or in such securities 
as are authorized for investment by the said deed of trust so executed by Andrew 
Carnegie, or by any deed of gift or last will and testament to be hereafter made 
or executed. 

Sec. 5. That the said corporation may take and hold any additional 
donations, grants, devises, or bequests which may be made in further support of 
the purposes of the said corporation, and may include in the expenses thereof 
the personal expenses which the trustees may incur in attending meetings or 
otherwise in carrying out the business of the trust, but the services of the 
trustees as such shall be gratuitous. 

Sec. 6. That as soon as may be possible after the passage of this Act a 
meeting of the trustees hereinbefore named shall be called by Daniel C. Gilman, 
John S. Billings, Charles D. Walcott, S. Weir Mitchell, John Hay, Elihu Root, 
and Carroll D. Wright, or any four of them, at the city of Washington, in 
the District of Columbia, by notice served in person or by mail addressed to 
each trustee at his place of residence; and the said trustees, or a majority 
thereof, being assembled, shall organize and proceed to adopt by-laws, to elect 
officers and appoint committees, and generally to organize the said corporation; 
and said trustees herein named, on behalf of the corporation hereby incorporated, 
shall thereupon receive, take over, and enter into possession, custody, and 
management of all property, real or personal, of the corporation heretofore known 
as the Carnegie Institution, incorporated, as hereinbefore set forth under "An Act 
to establish a Code of Law for the District of Columbia, January fourth, nineteen 
hundred and two," and to all its rights, contracts, claims, and property of any 
kind or nature ; and the several officers of such corporation, or any other person 
having charge of any of the securities, funds, real or personal, books or property 
thereof, shall, on demand, deliver the same to the said trustees appointed by this 
Act or to the persons appointed by them to receive the same; and the trustees 
of the existing corporation and the trustees herein named shall and may take 
such other steps as shall be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act. 

Sec. 7. That the rights of the creditors of the said existing corporation 
known as the Carnegie Institution shall not in any manner be impaired by the 



186 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



passage of this Act, or the transfer of the property hereinbefore mentioned, nor 
shall any liability or obligation for the payment of any sums due or to become 
due, or any claim or demand, in any manner or for any cause existing against 
the said existing corporation, be released or impaired ; but such corporation hereby 
incorporated is declared to succeed to the obligations and liabilities and to be held 
liable to pay and discharge all of the debts, liabilities, and contracts of the said 
corporation so existing to the same effect as if such new corporation had itself 
incurred the obligation or liability to pay such debt or damages, and no such action 
or proceeding before any court or tribunal shall be deemed to have abated or been 
discontinued by reason of the passage of this Act. 

Sec. 8. That Congress may from time to time alter, repeal, or modify this 
Act of incorporation, but no contract or individual right made or acquired shall 
thereby be divested or impaired. 

Sec. 9. That this Act shall take effect immediately. 







President of the Senate pro tempore. 



By -Laws of the Institution 

Adopted December 13, 190U- Amended December 13, 1910, December IS, 1912, December 10, 
19S7, December 15, 19S9, December 13, 191+0, December 18, 191$, December 12, 191+7, 
December 10, 1951+, October 21+, 1957, May 8, 1959, May 13, 1960, May 10, 1963, May 15, 1961+, 
March 6, 1967, May 3, 1968, May U, 1971, August SI, 1972, May 9, 1971+, April 30, 1976, 
May 1, 1981, May 7, 1982, and May 3, 1985. 

ARTICLE I 

The Trustees 

1.1. The Board of Trustees shall consist of twenty-four members with power to increase 
its membership to not more than twenty-seven members. 

1.2. The Board of Trustees shall be divided into three classes each having eight or nine 
members. The terms of the Trustees shall be such that those of the members of one class 
expire at the conclusion of each annual meeting of the Board. At each annual meeting of 
the Board vacancies resulting from the expiration of Trustees' terms shall be filled by 
their re-election or election of their successors. Trustees so re-elected or elected shall 
serve for terms of three years expiring at the conclusion of the annual meeting of the 
Board in the third year after their election. A vacancy resulting from the resignation, 
death, or incapacity of a Trustee before the expiration of his* term may be filled by elec- 
tion of a successor at or between annual meetings. A person elected to succeed a Trustee 
before the expiration of his term shall serve for the remainder of that term. There shall 
be no limit on the number of terms for which a Trustee may serve, and a Trustee shall be 
eligible for immediate re-election upon expiration of his term. 

1.3. No Trustee shall receive any compensation for his services as such. 

1.4. Trustees shall be elected by vote of two-thirds of the Trustees present at a meeting 
of the Board of Trustees at which a quorum is present or without a meeting by written ac- 
tion of all of the Trustees pursuant to Section 4.6. 

1.5. If, at any time during an emergency period, there be no surviving Trustee capable 
of acting, the President, the Director of each existing Department, or such of them as 
shall then be surviving and capable of acting, shall constitute a Board of Trustees pro tern, 
with full powers under the provisions of the Articles of Incorporation and these By-Laws. 
Should neither the President nor any such Director be capable of acting, the senior sur- 
viving Staff Member of each existing Department shall be a Trustee pro tern with full 
powers of a Trustee under the Articles of Incorporation and these By-Laws. It shall be in- 
cumbent on the Trustees pro tern to reconstitute the Board with permanent members 
within a reasonable time after the emergency has passed, at which time the Trustees pro 
tern shall cease to hold office. A list of Staff Member seniority, as designated annually by 
the President, shall be kept in the Institution's records. 

1.6. A Trustee who resigns after having served at least six years and having reached 
age seventy shall be eligible for designation by the Board of Trustees as a Trustee Emeri- 
tus. A Trustee Emeritus shall be entitled to attend meetings of the Board but shall have 
no vote and shall not be counted for purposes of ascertaining the presence of a quorum. 
A Trustee Emeritus may be invited to serve in an advisory capacity on any committee of 
the Board except the Executive Committee. 



*A masculine pronoun as used in these By-Laws shall be deemed to include the corre- 
sponding female pronoun. 



187 



188 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



ARTICLE II 
Officers of the Board 

2.1. The officers of the Board shall be a Chairman of the Board, a Vice-Chairman, and 
a Secretary, who shall be elected by the Trustees, from the members of the Board, by bal- 
lot to serve for a term of three years. All vacancies shall be filled by the Board for the un- 
expired term; provided, however, that the Executive Committee shall have power to fill 
a vacancy in the office of Secretary to serve until the next meeting of the Board of 
Trustees. 

2.2. The Chairman shall preside at all meetings and shall have the usual powers of a 
presiding officer. 

2.3. The Vice-Chairman, in the absence or disability of the Chairman, shall perform the 
duties of the Chairman. 

2.4. The Secretary shall issue notices of meetings of the Board, record its transactions, 
and conduct that part of the correspondence relating to the Board and to his duties. 



ARTICLE III 

Executive Administration 

3.1. There shall be a President who shall be elected by ballot by, and hold office during 
the pleasure of, the Board, who shall be the chief executive officer of the Institution. The 
President, subject to the control of the Board and the Executive Committee, shall have 
general charge of all matters of administration and supervision of all arrangements for 
research and other work undertaken by the Institution or with its funds. He shall prepare 
and submit to the Board of Trustees and to the Executive Committee plans and sugges- 
tions for the work of the Institution, shall conduct its general correspondence and the cor- 
respondence with applicants for grants and with the special advisors of the Committee, 
and shall present his recommendations in each case to the Executive Committee for deci- 
sion. All proposals and requests for grants shall be referred to the President for consider- 
ation and report. He shall have power to remove, appoint, and, within the scope of funds 
made available by the Trustees, provide for compensation of subordinate employees and 
to fix the compensation of such employees within the limits of a maximum rate of com- 
pensation to be established from time to time by the Executive Committee. He shall be ex 
officio a member of the Executive Committee. 

3.2. The President shall be the legal custodian of the seal and of all property of the In- 
stitution whose custody is not otherwise provided for. He shall sign and execute on behalf 
of the corporation all contracts and instruments necessary in authorized administrative 
and research matters and affix the corporate seal thereto when necessary, and may dele- 
gate the performance of such acts and other administrative duties in his absence to other 
officers. He may execute all other contracts, deeds, and instruments on behalf of the cor- 
poration and affix the seal thereto when expressly authorized by the Board of Trustees 
or Executive Committee. He may, within the limits of his own authorization, delegate to 
other officers authority to act as custodian of and affix the corporate seal. He shall be re- 
sponsible for the expenditure and disbursement of all funds of the Institution in accord- 
ance with the directions of the Board and of the Executive Committee, and shall keep ac- 
curate accounts of all receipts and disbursements. He shall, with the assistance of the 
Directors of the Departments, prepare for presentation to the Trustees and for publica- 
tion an annual report on the activities of the Institution. 

3.3. The President shall attend all meetings of the Board of Trustees. 

3.4. The corporation shall have such other officers as may be appointed by the Execu- 
tive Committee, having such duties and powers as may be specified by the Executive Com- 
mittee or by the President under authority from the Executive Committee. 



BY-LAWS 189 



3.5. The President shall retire from office at the end of the fiscal year in which he be- 
comes sixty-five years of age. 



ARTICLE IV 

Meetings and Voting 

4.1. The annual meeting of the Board of Trustees shall be held in the City of Washing- 
ton, in the District of Columbia, in May of each year on a date fixed by the Executive Com- 
mittee, or at such other time or such other place as may be designated by the Executive 
Committee, or if not so designated prior to May 1 of such year, by the Chairman of the 
Board of Trustees, or if he is absent or is unable or refuses to act, by any Trustee with the 
written consent of the majority of the Trustees then holding office. 

4.2. Special meetings of the Board of Trustees may be called, and the time and place of 
meeting designated, by the Chairman, or by the Executive Committee, or by any Trustee 
with the written consent of the majority of the Trustees then holding office. Upon the 
written request of seven members of the Board, the Chairman shall call a special meeting. 

4.3. Notices of meetings shall be given ten days prior to the date thereof. Notice may 
be given to any Trustee personally, or by mail or by telegram sent to the usual address of 
such Trustee. Notices of adjourned meetings need not be given except when the adjourn- 
ment is for ten days or more. 

4.4. The presence of a majority of the Trustees holding office shall constitute a quorum 
for the transaction of business at any meeting. An act of the majority of the Trustees 
present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board except as 
otherwise provided in these By-Laws. If, at a duly called meeting, less than a quorum is 
present, a majority of those present may adjourn the meeting from time to time until a 
quorum is present. Trustees present at a duly called or held meeting at which a quorum 
is present may continue to do business until adjournment notwithstanding the with- 
drawal of enough Trustees to leave less than a quorum. 

4.5. The transactions of any meeting, however called and noticed, shall be as valid as 
though carried out at a meeting duly held after regular call and notice, if a quorum is pres- 
ent and if, either before or after the meeting, each of the Trustees not present in person 
signs a written waiver of notice, or consent to the holding of such meeting, or approval of 
the minutes thereof. All such waivers, consents, or approvals shall be filed with the corpo- 
rate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting. 

4.6. Any action which, under law or these By-Laws, is authorized to be taken at a meet- 
ing of the Board of Trustees or any of the Standing Committees may be taken without a 
meeting if authorized in a document or documents in writing signed by all the Trustees, 
or all the members of the Committee, as the case may be, then holding office and filed 
with the Secretary. 

4.7. During an emergency period the term "Trustees holding office" shall, for purposes 
of this Article, mean the surviving members of the Board who have not been rendered in- 
capable of acting for any reason including difficulty of transportation to a place of meet- 
ing or of communication with other surviving members of the Board. 



ARTICLE V 

Committees 

5.1. There shall be the following Standing Committees, viz. an Executive Committee, 
a Finance Committee, an Auditing Committee, a Nominating Committee, and an Em- 
ployee Benefits Committee. 

5.2. All vacancies in the Standing Committees shall be filled by the Board of Trustees 
at the next annual meeting of the Board and may be filled at a special meeting of the 



190 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Board. A vacancy in the Executive Committee and, upon request of the remaining mem- 
bers of any other Standing Committee, a vacancy in such other Committee may be filled 
by the Executive Committee by temporary appointment to serve until the next meeting 
of the Board. 

5.3. The terms of all officers and of all members of Committees, as provided for herein, 
shall continue until their successors are elected or appointed. The term of any member of 
a Committee shall terminate upon termination of his service as a Trustee. 

Executive Committee 

5.4. The Executive Committee shall consist of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, and Sec- 
retary of the Board of Trustees, the President of the Institution ex officio, and, in addi- 
tion, not less than five or more than eight Trustees to be elected by the Board by ballot 
for a term of three years, who shall be eligible for re-election. Any member elected to fill 
a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of his predecessor's term. The presence of four 
members of the Committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at 
any meeting. 

5.5. The Executive Committee shall, when the Board is not in session and has not given 
specific directions, have general control of the administration of the affairs of the corpo- 
ration and general supervision of all arrangements for administration, research, and 
other matters undertaken or promoted by the Institution. It shall also submit to the 
Board of Trustees a printed or typewritten report of each of its meetings, and at the an- 
nual meeting shall submit to the Board a report for publication. 

5.6. The Executive Committee shall have power to authorize the purchase, sale, ex- 
change, or transfer of real estate. 

Finance Committee 

5.7. The Finance Committee shall consist of not less than five and not more than six 
members to be elected by the Board of Trustees by ballot for a term of three years, who 
shall be eligible for re-election. The presence of three members of the Committee shall 
constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting. 

5.8. The Finance Committee shall have custody of the securities of the Institution and 
general charge of its investments and invested funds and shall care for and dispose of the 
same subject to the directions of the Board of Trustees. It shall have power to authorize 
the purchase, sale, exchange, or transfer of securities and to delegate this power. So long 
as the Institution is the trustee under any retirement or other benefit plan for the staff 
members and employees of the Institution, it shall be responsible for supervision of mat- 
ters relating to investments thereunder and for the appointment or removal of any in- 
vestment manager or advisor. It shall also be responsible for reviewing the financial sta- 
tus and arrangements of any employee benefit plan for which the Institution is not the 
trustee and for appointment or removal of any plan trustee or insurance carrier. It shall 
consider and recommend to the Board from time to time such measures as in its opinion 
will promote the financial interests of the Institution and improve the management of in- 
vestments under any retirement or other benefit plan. The Committee shall make a re- 
port at the annual meeting of the Board. 

Auditing Committee 

5.9. The Auditing Committee shall consist of three members to be elected by the Board 
of Trustees by ballot for a term of three years. 

5.10. Before each annual meeting of the Board of Trustees, the Auditing Committee 
shall cause the accounts of the Institution for the preceding fiscal year to be audited by 
public accountants. The accountants shall report to the Committee, and the Committee 



BY-LAWS 191 



shall present said report at the ensuing annual meeting of the Board with such recom- 
mendations as the Committee may deem appropriate. 

Nominating Committee 

5.11. The Nominating Committee shall consist of the Chairman of the Board of Trus- 
tees ex officio and, in addition, three Trustees to be elected by the Board by ballot for a 
term of three years, who shall not be eligible for re-election until after the lapse of one 
year. Any member elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of his 
predecessor's term, provided that of the Nominating Committee first elected after adop- 
tion of this By-Law one member shall serve for one year, one member shall serve for two 
years, and one member shall serve for three years, the Committee to determine the re- 
spective terms by lot. 

5.12. Sixty days prior to an annual meeting of the Board the Nominating Committee 
shall notify the Trustees by mail of the vacancies to be filled in membership of the Board. 
Each Trustee may submit nominations for such vacancies. Nominations so submitted 
shall be considered by the Nominating Committee, and ten days prior to the annual meet- 
ing the Nominating Committee shall submit to members of the Board by mail a list of the 
persons so nominated, with its recommenaations for filling existing vacancies on the 
Board and its Standing Committees. No other nominations shall be received by the Board 
at the annual meeting except with the unanimous consent of the Trustees present. 

Employee Benefits Committee 

5.13. The Employee Benefits Committee shall consist of not less than three and not 
more than four members to be elected by the Board of Trustees by ballot for a term of 
three years, who shall be eligible for re-election, and the Chairman of the Finance Com- 
mittee ex officio. Any member elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of 
his predecessor's term. 

5.14. The Employee Benefits Committee shall, subject to the directions of the Board of 
Trustees, be responsible for supervision of the activities of the administrator or adminis- 
trators of any retirement or other benefit plan for staff members and employees of the 
Institution, except that any matter relating to investments or to the appointment or re- 
moval of any trustee or insurance carrier under any such plan shall be the responsibility 
of the Finance Committee. It shall receive reports from the administrator or administra- 
tors of the employee benefit plans with respect to administration, benefit structure, oper- 
ation, and funding. It shall consider and recommend to the Board from time to time such 
measures as in its opinion will improve such plans and the administration thereof. The 
Committee shall submit a report to the Board at the annual meeting of the Board. 



ARTICLE VI 

Financial Administration 

6.1. No expenditure shall be authorized or made except in pursuance of a previous ap- 
propriation by the Board of Trustees, or as provided in Section 5.8 of these By-Laws. 

6.2. The fiscal year of the Institution shall commence on the first day of July in each 
year. 

6.3. The Executive Committee shall submit to the annual meeting of the Board a full 
statement of the finances and work of the Institution for the preceding fiscal year and a 
detailed estimate of the expenditures of the succeeding fiscal year. 

6.4. The Board of Trustees, at the annual meeting in each year, shall make general ap- 
propriations for the ensuing fiscal year; but nothing contained herein shall prevent the 
Board of Trustees from making special appropriations at any meeting. 



192 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



6.5. The Executive Committee shall have general charge and control of all appropria- 
tions made by the Board. Following the annual meeting, the Executive Committee may al- 
locate these appropriations for the succeeding fiscal year. The Committee shall have full 
authority to reallocate available funds, as needed, and to transfer balances. 

6.6. The securities of the Institution and evidences of property, and funds invested and 
to be invested, shall be deposited in such safe depository or in the custody of such trust 
company and under such safeguards as the Finance Committee shall designate, subject 
to directions of the Board of Trustees. Income of the Institution available for expenditure 
shall be deposited in such banks or depositories as may from time to time be designated 
by the Executive Committee. 

6.7. Any trust company entrusted with the custody of securities by the Finance Com- 
mittee may, by resolution of the Board of Trustees, be made Fiscal Agent of the Institu- 
tion, upon an agreed compensation, for the transaction of the business coming within the 
authority of the Finance Committee. 

6.8. The property of the Institution is irrevocably dedicated to charitable purposes, and 
in the event of dissolution its property shall be used for and distributed to those charita- 
ble purposes as are specified by the Congress of the United States in the Articles of Incor- 
poration, Public Law No. 260, approved April 28, 1904, as the same may be amended from 
time to time. 



ARTICLE VII 

Amendment of By-Laws 

7.1. These By-Laws may be amended at any annual or special meeting of the Board of 
Trustees by a two-thirds vote of the members present, provided written notice of the pro- 
posed amendment shall have been served personally upon, or mailed to the usual address 
of, each member of the Board twenty days prior to the meeting. 



Index 



Abelson, Philip H., v, vi, 13, 115, 163, 165 

Alcorn, Michael, 116 

Aldrich, L. Thomas, 89-90, 155 

algae 

light harvesting in, 21 

nutrient uptake in, 38 
Anacystis nidulans, 38 
Angevine, Charles L., 156 

publications of, 141 
Arequipa Massif, Peru, 89-90 
Arp, HaltonC., 158 

publications of, 145 
Ascaris lumbricoides, 24 
asteroids, 84 
astronomy 

future of, 4 

studies in, 50-78 
Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies, 51, 58 
Au, Andrew Y., 108, 157 

Babcock, Horace W., 158 

publications of, 145 
Banda subduction zone, Indonesia, 95 
Baskin, Tobias I., 44, 155 

publications of, 131 
Baum, William, 77 
bean 

variation in RuBisCO, 42-43 
Bedke, John, 64, 159 
Beers, Timothy, 65-67 
Bell, Peter M., 85, 109-110, 111, 121, 157 

publications of, 136 
Bennett, Karen, 24-25, 153 
Berry, Joseph A., 40, 42-43, 47-48, 154 

publications of, 131 
beryllium-10 isotope studies, 5, 95-96 
Bialek-Bylka, Grazyna, 39, 155 
Big Bang, 65 

biogeochemistry, 47-48, 115-118 
biological sciences 

studies in, 12-49 
Bison, biochemistry of bones, 117 
Bjorkman, Olle, 39-40, 46, 154 
Boctor, NabilZ., 151 

publications of, 136 
Borne, Kirk D., 55, 119, 156 

publications of, 141 
Boroson, Todd A., 56-57, 158, 161 

publications of, 145 



Boss, Alan P., 73-74, 83-84, 97, 155 

publications of, 141 
Bowers, Ray, vii, 160 
Boyd, Francis R., 93, 157 

publications of, 136 
Branscomb, Lewis M., v, 165 
Briggs, Winslow R., vii, 19, 43, 122, 154 

publications of, 131 
Britten, Roy J., vii, 13, 31-32, 160 

publications of, 135 
Brown, Donald D., vii, 6, 13-15, 121, 125, 
153, 169 

publications of, 129 
Brown, Jeanette, 39, 154 

publications of, 132 
Brown, Louis, 5, 95-96, 155 

publications of, 141 
Bruning, David H., 158 

publications of, 145 
Burstein, David, 55-56 
Bushveld Complex, 104 

Caenorhabditis elegans, 24 

California Current, 95 

Campbell, Belva G., 71-72, 119, 158 

Canapp, Cady, vii, 125, 160 

Carlson, George, 63 

Carlson, Richard W., 93-94, 121, 155 

publications of, 142 
Carnegie, Andrew, 6 
Carnegie-del Duca Fellowship, 126 
Caron, Lise, 39, 154 
Cerro Prieto, 115 

Cerro Tololo, observations at, 66, 69 
Chan, Winston W., 88-89, 98, 156 

publications of, 142 
Charge-Coupled Devices 

at Las Campanas, 75-77 

role in astronomy, 11 

studies with, 54, 57, 59, 63, 71 
Chayes, Felix, 121, 125, 157 

publications of, 136 
chloroplast DNA, 21-23 
chromosomes 

lampbrush, 27-28 

protein-gene conformations, 14-15, 16, 
17-18 

replication origins in, 27 

telomeres of, 28 



193 



194 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



chromospheric emissions, 74-75 
Chua, N.-H., 21 
Cifuentes, L.A., 117, 157 
Clarke, Timothy J. 98, 156 
clusters of galaxies 

HK emissions of, 74 

rotation characteristics of, 55 

stripping of gas in, 60-61 
Coleman, William T., Jr., v, 163, 165 
Commelina communis, 44 
condensation 

role in solar system formation, 79-82, 85 
Conley, Pamela, 23, 155 

publications of, 132 
continents, formation of, 90-94 
core of Earth, 85, 111 
Crazy Mountains, Montana, 94 
Cronin, David, 100 
crystallization 

of magma, 104 

rates of, in melts, 105 
cyanobacteria, 23 
Cyanophora paradoxa, 22 

Da Costa, Gary, 68 

dark matter in galaxies, 55, 57 

David, Edward E., Jr., v, 126, 163, 165 

de Cicco, Diane, 27 

Demmig, Barbara, 40, 154 

diamond-anvil pressure cell, 85, 109, 111 

calibration of ruby fluorescence scale, 111 
diamonds 

use in high-pressure research, 111 
Diebold, John, v, 126, 165, 169 
Dingwell, Donald B., 101, 102, 157 

publications of, 137 
distance scale, cosmological, 63-65 
DNA evolution 

drift rate and, 32 

of chloroplast, 22 

of geminiviruses, 29 

of primates, 32 
Doak, John, 112, 157 
Dressier, Alan, 56-57, 58-59, 60-61, 77, 
158 

publications of, 145 
Drosophila genetics, 25-27 
Dudas, Francis, 94, 156 
Duncan, Douglas K., 74-75, 158 

publications of, 145 
du Pont telescope 

improvements at, 75-76 

observations with, 66, 68, 69 
Dupraz, Christopher, 53 

Earth, formation of, 82-84 
earthquakes 

1983 Borah Peak, 98 

1978 Izu Oshima, 113 
Ebert, James D., v, vii, 3-8, 160, 165, 169 

publications of, 150 
Edelman, Gerald M., v, 165 
elliptical galaxies 

fine structures in, 52-54 



interactions between pairs, 55 

outcome of merging, 58-59 

relation to spirals, 57 

triaxiality in, 59 
embryos, human collection, 48-49 
erosion of soils, 96 
Esperanca, Sonia, 156 

publications of, 142 
Estep, Marilyn L.F., 47-48, 117, 157, 160 

publications of, 137 
Evertson, Dale, 112 

Faber, Sandra M., v, 124, 165, 169 

Faber-Jackson relation, 58 

Fambrough, Douglas M., 36-37, 123, 153 

publications of, 129 
Fedoroff, Nina V., 30-31, 153 

publications of, 129 
Ferry, John, 126 

Field, Christopher, 44-46, 124, 154 
Fillmore, James, 56 
Finger, Larry W., 108, 110, 157 

publications of, 137 
Flavell, Richard, 17 
Forbush, Scott E. 

publications of, 142 
Ford, W. Kent, Jr., 52-54, 55-57, 75, 125, 
155, 158, 169 

publications of, 142 
Fork, David C, 40-41, 154 

publications of, 132 
fossils, biogeochemical study of, 116-117 
Four-shooter CCD array, 62, 71 
Fouts, Gary, 69, 159 
Frantz, John D., 105-106, 126, 157 
Freedman, Wendy L., 63-64, 119, 158 

publications of, 146 
Fremyella diplosiphon, 23 

Gall, Joseph G., 27-28, 120, 153 

publications of, 129 
Gallagher, Jay, 73 
gas depletion in galaxies, 60-61 
geminiviruses, molecular analysis of, 28-29 
genes 

amplification of, 25-27 

evolutionary rearrangements of, 31-32 

methylation in, 18—19 

organization of, 19-25 

sensitivity to DNase I, 16-18 

transcriptional complexes of, 6-7, 13-15, 
15-16 

variations in binding affinity of, 15 
genetic recombination, 29-30, 31-32 
geochemistry, 90-96 
Gibbs, Gerald V., 110 
gifts to the Institution, 169-170 
Gilmore, Gerard, 159 

publications of, 146 
Giraud, Edmond H., 158 

publications of, 146 
Gize, Andrew P., 157 

publications of, 137 
Global Digital Seismic Network, 88 



INDEX 



195 



globular clusters, composition of, 69, 71 
Goelet, Robert G., v, 163, 169 
Goettel, Kenneth A., Ill, 157 

publications of, 137 
Golden, William T., v, 126, 163, 165, 169 
Golgi complex, 37-38 
Graham, John, 69, 124 
Graves, Barbara J., 16, 153 
Green, Laura S., 38, 155 

publications of, 132 
Greenewalt, Crawford H., v, 126, 169 
Greenough, William C, v, 165 
Greer, Dennis, 40, 154 
Gregg, Michael D., 126, 158 
Grossman, Arthur R., 21-23, 38, 120, 154 

publications of, 132 
Gruneisen parameter, 109 
Guy, Robert, 47-48, 160 

H K emissions, 66, 74-75 
Haraburda, Joseph M.S., vii, 160 
Hardy, Eduardo, 158 

publications of, 146 
Hare, P. Edgar, 116-117, 120, 157 

publications of, 137 
Harris, Hugh, 78, 162 
Hart, William K., 94, 161 

publications of, 142 
Hartwick, Charles, 123 
Hasegawa, Akira, 87 
Haskins, Caryl P., v, vi, 119, 165, 169 
Hazen, Robert M., 108, 121, 157 

publications of, 137 
heat transfer, experiments on, 103-104 
Heckert, Richard E., v, 163, 165, 169 
Hemley, Russell J., 85, 110-111, 157 

publications of, 138 
Hewlett, William R., v, 126, 165, 169 
Hicks, Virginia, 123 
high-pressure experiments, 85, 108-111 
histone genes, 27-28 
Hoering, Thomas C, 5, 47-48, 108, 117- 
118, 120, 121, 126, 157 

publications of, 138 
Hofmeister, Anne M., 108-109, 157 
Hooker telescope 

future of, 4-5 

studies with, 69, 78 
Hornblower, Marshall, vii, 165 
Hoshina, Satoshi, 41 
Howard, Robert, 158 

publications of, 146 
Hubble, Edwin, 50, 52 
Hubble profiles, 52 

Hubble Space Telescope, 4, 64, 72, 77-78 
Hunter, Deidre A., 57-58, 73, 119, 126, 156 

publications of, 142 
Hutchins, Grover, 48 
Hydra, 28 

lino, Moritoshi, 44, 155 

publications of, 133 
infrared astronomy, 71-74 
Instituto Geofisico del Peru, 114 



instrumentation advances at Las Campanas 

direct CCD camera, 76-77 

2 D Frutti, 75-76 
interactions of galaxies, 51-61 

computer simulations, 55 

in clusters, 55-56, 60-61 

polar-rings, 51-52 
International Geological Correlation 

Project, 121 
IRAS satellite, observations with, 74 
IRIS, 98 
Irvine, T. Neil, 104, 157 

publications of, 138 
isotope studies 

10 Be, 5, 95-96 

in graphite, 106 

in organic matter, 48, 117 

in rocks of Banda subduction zone, 94-95 

in rocks of Crazy Mountains, 94 

in rocks of Kaapvaal craton, 93 

in rocks of Superior Province craton, 91- 
92 

Japanese Meteorological Agency, 113 
James, David E., 98, 121, 155 " 

publications of, 143 
Jedrzejewski, Robert I., 59, 158 
Jephcoat, Andrew P., 85, 111, 157 

publications of, 138 
Jewett, George F., Jr., v, 169 
Johnson, Antonia Ax:son, v, 163, 165, 169 
Johnson, Peter, 16, 153 
Jupiter, formation of, 85 

Kaapvaal craton, 93 
Kalfayan, Laura, 27, 153 
Kaufman, Lon S., 17-21, 154 

publications of, 133 
Kerckhoff Marine Laboratory, 13, 30, 32 
kerogen, hydrocarbons in, 117-118 
Kieffer lattice dynamic model, 108 
Kieschnick, William F., v, 123, 165 
kimberlite, 93 

Kirschner, Barbara, 121, 153 
Kitt Peak, observations at, 54, 55, 57 
Koo, David C, 61-63, 156 

publications of, 143 
Kristian, Jerome, 51-52, 77, 158 
Krzeminski, Wojciech A., 158 

publications of, 147 
Kuiper Airborne Observatory, 73 
Kunkel, William E., 158 

publications of, 147 
Kushiro, Ikuo, 79-82, 157 

publications of, 138 

Lake, George, 58 
Las Campanas observatory 
improvements at, 75-76 
new 8-meter telescope at, 4 
observations with 2.5-meter telescope, 

66, 68, 69 
observations with 1.0-meter telescope, 
65, 67, 77 



196 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



Laubach, Gerald D., v, 123, 165 
Lawrence, John C, vii, 160, 165 
layered intrusions, 104 
Lazarowitz, S.G., 28-29, 120, 153 
Lee, Typhoon, 123, 155 

publications of, 143 
Lemaux, Peggy, 22-23, 154 

publications of, 133 
Levitt, Jacob, 160 

publications of, 133 
light, influence on plants 

blue light, 44 

mRNA responses in pea, 19-21 

phytochrome mediated, 43-44 
Linde, AlanT., 112, 155 
Lingula, biochemistry of shell, 116 
lipids, 33-36, 41 
Lomax, TerriL.,23, 126, 155 

publications of, 133 
Los Tuxtlas biological preserve, 45 
Lowell Observatory, 75 
Lowenstam, Heinz, 116, 161 
low-pressure experiments, 79-82 
Luetgert, J.H., 89 

McClintock, Barbara, vii, 30, 31, 160 
McGregor, Peter J., 72-73 

publications of, 147 
McKnight, Steven L., 15-16, 124, 153 

publications of, 130 
Macomber, John D., v, 165, 169 
Mac Vicar, Margaret L.A., vii, 122, 126, 
160, 165 

publications of, 150 
magma 

crystallization of, 104 

relation to earthquakes, 115 

structure of silicate liquids, 99-102 
magnetic studies 

of Earth, 90 

of interstellar clouds, 73 
maize genetics, 30-31 
Malooly, Thomas, 123 
mangroves, 40 
mantle 

composition of, 85 

convection in, 96-97 

enrichment of, 92-95 

laboratory investigations of, 109-110 
Mao, Ho-kwang, 85, 109-110, 111, 157 

publications of, 138 
Marcy, Geoffrey W., 158 

publications of, 147 
Mars, formation of, 82 
Martin, William McChesney, Jr., v 
Masuda, Tetsu, 115 
membranes 

lipid traffic, 33-36 

nutrient deprivation of, 38 

receptor traffic, 37-38 

sodium pump, 36-37 

thylakoid, 38, 41 
Mercury, formation of, 82 



metallicity of stars, 65-71 

chemical evolution in SMC, 67-69 

globular clusters in Galaxy, 69 

search for earliest stars, 65-67 

vs. rotation, 69-71 
metasomatism, 105-106 
meteorites 

as oldest solar system material, 79 

sources of, 84-85 
methylation of plant DNA, 18-19 
Meyer, Robert, 98 
Milky Way Galaxy 

studies of, 65-71 
Miller, Thomas, 123 
mineral physics, 106-111 

computational quantum chemistry, 110— 
111 

compressibility of materials, 107-108 

pressure-volume relations, 109-110 

spectroscopy, 108-109 
Mizuno, Hiroshi, 83-84, 156 
Mohanty, Prasanna, 41 
Moon, formation of, 82-83 
Mooney, Harold, 46 
Moore, G. William, 48 
Moore, Harvey, 123 
monoclonal antibodies 

to sodium pump, 36 
Morris, Julie D., 94-95, 96, 156 

publications of, 143 
Mould, Jeremy, 68 
Mount Wilson observatory 

changes at, 4-5 

observations at 60-inch telescope, 74 

observations at 100-inch telescope, 69, 78 

observations at solar telescopes, 4-5 
Mttller, Fabiola, 48 
Muncill, Gregory E., 105, 125, 157 
Murphy, Franklin D. , v, 122 
Murray, Michael, 17 
Mysen, Bj0rn O., 79-82, 99-102, 125, 157 

publications of, 139 

Navale, Vivek, 118, 161 
Norton, Garrison, v 
Noyes, Robert, 74, 162 

Ocolo, Leonidas, 90 
Onverwacht group, 93 
O'Rahilly, Ronan, 48-49, 153 

publications of, 130 
Orr- Weaver, Terry, 27, 153 
oxygen 

evolution in biosphere, 47-48 

Pagano, Richard E., 33-36, 120, 153 

publications of, 130 
Palmer, Jeffrey D., 126 

publications of, 134 
Palomar, observations at, 54, 57, 59, 62, 66, 

71 
Parratt, Patricia, vii, 160 
PASSCAL, 97-99, 121 



INDEX 



197 



pea genetics, 16-21 
Pennoyer, Robert M., v, 163, 165, 169 
Perkins, Richard S.,'v, 165 
Persson, S. Eric, 71-73, 158 

publications of, 147 
petrology, 102-106 
Phebus, Betty, 123 
photoinhibition, 39-40 
photorespiration, 48 
photosynthesis 

effect of heat on, 40-41 

effect of light on, 39-40 

effect on biosphere, 47 

environmental differences among plants, 
44-46 

pigment structure of thylakoid, 39 
phototropism, 44 
phycobilisomes, 21-23 
physiological ecology 

habitat breadth, 45-46 

resource allocation, 46 
pigment structure, 39 
Piper nigrum, 45 
planetary petrology, 79-82 
planetary science, 78-85 
planetesimals, 82-85 
Poe, Glenn, 112, 157 
Polans, NeilO., 21, 155 

publications of, 134 
Polar-ring galaxies, 51-52 
Precambrian era, 91 

Preston, George W., vii, 65-67, 122, 158, 
166 

publications of, 147 
Price, Christopher, 75, 159 

Qi, Gui-Zhong, 90, 156 

radio astronomy, 52, 61-63, 71-72 
radio sources 

in distant objects, 61-63 

in polar-rings, 52 

in YSO's, 71-72 
radishes 

wild vs. cultivated, 46 
Ramsey, Elizabeth, 126, 153 
Reticon spectrometer, 69, 76 
ribosomal genes 

in Xenopus, 14-15 

in pea, 18-19 
Richet, Pascal, 110, 157 

publications of, 139 
Rock, John, 122 
Rodriguez, Anibal, 86-88 
Ross, Marvin, 85 
Rubin, Gerald, 26, 125, 153 
Rubin, Vera C, 55-57, 75, 77, 120, 155, 
158 

publications of, 143 
RuBisCO 

genes of, 21 

regulation of, 42-43 
ruby fluorescence scale, 111 



Rumble, Douglas, III, 106, 157 

SO galaxies 

evolution in clusters, 60-61 

fine structures in, 54 

in polar-rings, 51-52 
Sacks, I. Selwyn, 86-88, 97, 98, 112, 121, 
155 

publications of, 143 
Sandage, Allan, 63-65, 69-70, 77, 158 

publications of, 147 
Scarfe, Christopher, 100 
Schaefer, Martha W., 108-109, 157 
Schechter, Paul L., 51-52, 57, 59, 158 
Schilling, J., 23 

Schneider, John, 86-88, 98, 156 
Schulze, Daniel J., 157 

publications of, 139 
Schweizer, Francois, 52-54, 155, 158 

publications of, 143 
Seamans, Robert C, Jr., v, 163, 165, 169 
Searle, Leonard, 69, 158 
sediment recycling, 94-96 
Seemann, Jeffrey, 42-43, 155 
Seemann, Michael, 112, 157 
Seifert, Friedrich A., 101 
seismograph array (PASSCAL), 97-99 
seismology, 86-90, 97-99, 111-115 
Seitzer, Patrick, 54 
seminars, 120-121 
Sen, Arindam, 41, 155 

publications of, 134 
Seyfried, Max, 40, 155 
Shara, Michael, 78, 162 
Sharpe, Martin, 104 
Shectman, Stephen A., 65-67, 75, 158 

publications of, 148 
Shinkle, James R., 43-44, 155 

publications of, 134 
Shirey, Steven B., 91-92, 124, 156 

publications of, 143 
silicates, melt structure, 99-102 
Silsbee, Greg, vii, 125, 160 
Silver, Paul G., 88-89, 98, 115, 121, 156 

publications of, 144 
Singer, A. David, 122, 158 
slowquakes, 113 
Smith, Horace, 68 
Snider, Martin, 37-38, 153 

publications of, 131 
Snodgrass, Herschel B., 158 

publications of, 148 
sodium pump, 36-37 
solar-stellar physics, 74-75 
solar system, formation of, 78-85 

computer simulations, 82-85 

experimental studies, 79-82, 85 
Spiker, Steven, 17 
spiral galaxies 

classification system of, 55-57 

environmental effects on, 55-57 

in rich clusters, 60 

relation to ellipticals, 57 



198 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 



rotations in, 56-57 
Spradling, Allan C, 25-27, 125, 156 

publications of, 131 
Stafford, Thomas, 117, 157 
Stanton, Frank, v, 122, 126, 165, 166, 169 
star formation 

in irregulars, 73 

in polar-rings, 51-52 

in solar neighborhood, 75 

of YSO's, 71-73 

theoretical studies of cloud collapse, 73- 
74 
State Seismological Bureau of the PRC, 114 
Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y., 158 

publications of, 148 
stellar outflow, 71-73 
Stern, David B., 155 

publications of, 134 
Stetson, Peter B., 69 

publications of, 148 
strainmeter program, 111-114 
stress 

and tectonic forces, 87-88 

in diamonds at high pressure, 111 
stress, plant response to 

high light, 39-40 

high salt, 40 

high temperature, 40 

low sulfur, 38 
Stryker, Linda L., 67-69, 156, 162 

publications of, 144 
subduction processes, 86-90 
sunspots 74 
Suntzeff,' Nicholas B., 69, 119, 158 

publications of, 148 
Superior Province craton, 91, 94 
supernovae 

as sources of heavy elements, 65 

as standard candles, 64-65 
Swope telescope, observations with, 65, 67, 
77 

Tammann, Gustav, 64-65, 159 
telescope technology, 4 
Tera, Fouad, 95-96, 156 

publications of, 144 
Tetrahymena, 28 
Thompson, Ian B., 75, 158 

publications of, 149 
Thompson, William F., 16-21, 154 

publications of, 134 
tidal disruption, 83-84 
Togasaki, Robert K., 155 

publications of, 135 
Townes, Charles H., v, 165, 169 
transposable genetic elements 

as vectors (Drosophila), 26 

evolutionary effects of, 32 

molecular analysis of (maize), 30-31 



triaxiality, 59 

tropical rain forest, 45-46 

Tuve, Merle, 75 

ultraviolet astronomy, 73 
Uster, Paul, 33-36, 153 

Valette-Silver, J. Nathalie, 96, 115, 156 

publications of, 144 
Van de Graaff accelerator (U. Penn.), 95 
Van Gorkom, Jacqueline, 52 
Vasquez, Susan Y., vii, 160, 165 
Vaughan, Arthur H., Jr., 74-75, 158, 169 

publications of, 150 
Vaughan-Preston gap, 75 
Venus, formation of, 82 
Very Large Array, observations with, 52, 

62, 72 
Virgo, David, 79-82, 99-102, 108-109, 157 

publications of, 139 
volcanos 

Cerro Negro, 96 

Hekla, 112 

Pacaya, 96 

W.M. Keck Foundation Research Scholar, 

105, 125 
Wakimoto, Barbara, 27, 153 
Wall, Joseph, 6 
Ward, Samuel, 23-25, 153 
Watson, John C, 17-21, 155 

publications of, 135 
Weeden, Norman, 21 
Weinberg, Sidney J., Jr., v, 165, 169 
Weiss, Nigel, 74 

Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, 62 
wheat genetics, 16-18 
Wide Field/Planetary Camera, 77 
Williams, W. Patrick, 41, 160 
Wilson, OlinC, 74, 158 
Windhorst, Rogier, 61-63, 119, 158 

publications of, 150 
Wisdom, Jack, 84 

Wetherill, George W., vii, 82-85, 121, 125, 
156 

publications of, 144 

xenoliths, 93 

Xenopus genetics, 6-7, 14-15 
Xu, Ji-an, 85, 109-110, 111, 157 
publications of, 140 

Yoder, Hatten S., Jr., vii, 102-104, 122, 
157, 166 
publications of, 141 
Young Stellar Objects, YSO's, 71-73 

Zeiger, Eduardo, 44